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Old Settlers Association 

Proceedings of the Old Settlers 
Association of Grinnell^ Iowa 
annual meetings^ 1896-I90I 

being xeroxed from Iowa Bicent record center 




This pamphlet contains only a part of the papers read at the meetings of 
the Old Settlers' Association, and most of these are somewhat abridged. We 
seek to preserve the essentials of earliest Grinnell history; we make no efTort 
now to give an abstract of our "proceedings." 
July i, 1901. 

Disaster may be anticipated, nevertheless we are stirred profoundly when 
its storm bursts upon us. Talk of civil war filled all the air north and south 
during the presidential campaign of i860, but few in the north deemed such 
insanity possible, while southern campaigners and later advocates of seces- 
sion assured their hearers that bold defiance in the south would make north- 
ern knees tremble and northern men surrender. But it was all a mistake. 
Sumter was knocked into pieces by South Carolinians. Lincoln called for 
75,(HtO nuMK Iowa responded promptly with an ollVr, it is said, of twenty 
tinic'S^ her quota, but arms were wanting. Gi'innell and the vicinity were 
ablaze, but their volunteers were too late for earliest cavalry service, and a 
fourth regiment was long deemed needless. Permission to organize that regi- 
ment was delayed till Oct. 12, iS6l. 

A company had been formed in Grinnell for a regiment of hoped-for 
"Mounted Rifles." They were promptly in Camp Harlan at Mount Pleasant, 
under Capt. Alonzo B. Parkell, 1st. Lt. Orson N, Perkins, and 2nd Lt. Rdward 
W. Dee. They were mustered into service by Capt. Alexander Chambers on 
Nov. 23, 1861, when the organization of the Fourth Cavalry was substan- 
tially complete, and they became a part of it as Co. "E." 

U. S. Senator James Harlan (for whom the camp was named) and the peo- 
ple of Mt. Pleasant gained their sincerest esteem by a thousand kindnesses, 
and Senator Harlan was called the "Father of the Regiment." But the re- 
str.iints of camp life were irksome, the discipline to self-governing Americans 
Im<, autocratic, the measles swept off nine of the regiment during the follow- 
ing winter, and their military supplies came with provoking tardiness. From 
camp drill they did not move toward active service until about the next 

Co. "E" of the Fourth Iowa Cavalry. 

(Frci)ared, substantially, by J. M. Carney, Esq., of Gilinan.) 


i^^^^i^^^ J^tctntennial Coiinni£^iJion 


March. In St. Louis their arms were complete, and— such arms! Sabres 
lonj^ enough to "mark out corn," and Austrian rifles more likely to kill the 
carrier than anybody eisel These "light-armed" gentlemen carried iwptdi- 
mtiita at tirst of about 50 lbs. weight! Better and lighter arms came to them 
Inter, and experience soon taught them to dispense with all else that was not 

The Fourth Cavalry moved from Benton Barracks, St. Louis, on March 10, 
1862, to join the army of Gen, Curtis in its operations against the combined 
forces of Price, McCullough and Van Dorn, but active co-operation was de- 
layed until April l6th. Incessant rains, heavy marching and poor food, 
caused much sickness, and necessitated leaving a considerable number by the 
way to rest and to recover. Henry Heckman of Co. "E" was left in charge 
of three or four of these invalids in a log house in the woods near Batesville, 
Ark. Half a dozen guerrillas soon attacked the little hospital. Henry was 
the only one in the house who could use a gun, but he used the weapons 
there so successfully that the assailants were glad to get out of the range of 
his bullets. He had very coolly determined to .be shot while shooting rather 
than to die as a prisoner through the usual mercy of the bushwhacker. 

At Mammoth Spring occurred the shock of the first night alarm. The 
camp was quiet. The fires were burning. All were dreaming of the happy 
time when rebellion should be no more. But, hark! A shot on the picket 
line. The whole line is abla/e. The camp is in arms. The colonel, dashing 
about on his foaming steed, is shouting, "l-'all in! Fall in! Put out those 
tires! Bugler, blow your bugle." "But what shall 1 blow?" "Blow your bu- 
gle, confound you! — blow! blow!" We are in battle line. The colonel is 
exhausted. The rebels are invisible. The old gray mare that dashed through 
the picket line to find companions, found them and is happy. No blood 
flowed. Everybody smiled at last. The old mare had cracked a good joke. 

It was at Searcy, Ark., that we hrst met the enemy in force, but with no 
decisive results. 

The alarming increase of sickness and the impossibility of obtaining sup- 
plies by the way of White River, compelled Gen. Curtis to turn toward the 
Mississippi. After four months of marching and fighting through the most 
difficult country imaginable, while cut off from the outside world and being 
deemed the "Lost Army," we reached Helena July I5th, 1S62. 

IkTe scouting, foraging, and occasional forays into the enemy's country, 
gave us hard work, but the health of the command imjiroved greatly, and 
with that the desire to get into some important movement increased. 

Capt. Parkell had become major and was in command of the regiment. 


In April, 1863, he obtained permission for it to fly away from Helena to aid 
in tlie more obviously perilous work in front of Vicksburj^, The capture of 
that strategic point was less than three months away, but the battles of Four- 
teen-Mile Creek, Jackson, Haines' BiulT, Mechanicsburg and others were 
sprinkled through them. That more signihcant life was exhilarating, but it 
made exhausting demands upon the Fourth Cavalry, which performed all the 
cavalry service for tlie besiegers until near July. That regiment had only 
about one-fourth of its April number fit for duty when Pemberton surren- 
dered. Major Parkell had shown himself an able and valiant officer, and Eli 
Allen with Henry Black had earned special honor for ready wit and and cool 
courage, which will be noticed hereafter. 

July 4th, 1863, was the beginning of the end of the Confederacy. Thence- 
forward it was glory enough for any regiment to have contributed to the 
capture of Vicksburg or to the defeat of Lee at Gettysburg. But that brought 
no leisure to the 'Ith Cavalry. Col. Edward F. Winslow then took command 
of it, obtained better arms, and led it at the head of the brigade which moved 
at once against Johnston. Men were eager for that service, and one-half of 
those who went should have been in the hospital. There was just the dash 
in it which pleases the born soldier. Railroad communications were cut, 
rebel detachments sent flying, and raids were made into Confederate regions 
where no Union soldier liad ventured before, liight hundred men marched 
265 miles through Canton and Granada to Memphis, made the Mississippi 
Central useless, and captured four times as many as they lost. 

In November, 1863, the 4th Cavalry were called on to re-enlist as 'veterans' 
for 'three years or the war.' On the following Christmas Day the 4th be- 
came the 'Veteran' regiment at Vicksburg, the first from Iowa, and won 
great eclat for their eminently patriotic spirit. Added honor was theirs 
when they voluntarily deferred their promised furlough for a visit to their 
homes until they could make their Meridian campaign with Gen. Sherman. 

Meridian was 125 miles east of Vicksburg, near the state line between Mis- 
sissippi and Alabama, in a fertile region, a depot of military supplies, and a 
manufacturing and railroad center. The capture of Atlanta was in contem- 
plation, and the antecedent destruction of Merittian's military facilities was 
most important. It was a dangerous enterprise for the few men who could 
be employed in it to attempt. The plan, the peril, and the general, were quite 
[(} the taste of the Iowa boys. The cavalry led the expedition, through the 
capture of JackscMi, to Meridian, and the 4111, under the cominand of Major 
Parkell, led the cavalry. Twelve days those were of running light, a running 
after "superior" number.s. Their object was accomplished. All railroads 




centering at Meridian and large amounts of military material were effectually 
destroyed. On their return tb the Mississippi the cavalry served as the rear- 
guard of the army. During that month (February, 1S64) the 4th marched 
450 miles. 

And now the veterans are olT for home on their happy and nobly-earned 
furlough, to an Iowa welcome which tears only can express and to honors 
which love only can confer. 

Some 600 recruits poured into the regiment, but of 57 of these Surgeon 
Robinson said: "The surgeons who passed these men and boys ought to be 
shot." Large bounties tempted men unfit for service to offer themselves, 
and gross ignorance or unmitigated rascality pronounced them competent. 
They were soon "weeded out." 

The able Gen. Forrest, made infamous at Fort Pillow, now demanded 
much attention. Gen. Sturgis led 8000 men in June out to Guntown against 
him, only about half of whom returned to Memphis to curse their blunder- 
ing general. Co. E, of the 4th, lost but a single man and the entire regiment 
less than several others even though it was in most perilous and most useful 
service in attack and in defense, but for a colored regiment and for the 3rd 
and 4th Cavalry the annihilation of the army of Sturgis would have been 
nearly complete. 

Hut the -Ith Sot^n had the ple.isure of aiding in victories over Forrest at 
TupelK>. in a dash lhrou,iL;h Aikansas into Missouri, in defeating Generals 
I'rice and Shelby, and in capturing Generals Marmaduke and Cabell. They 
received highest eulogies for their "magnificent behavior" from Gen. Rose- 
crans, and by being called "such glorious troops" by General Pleasanton. 

When they reaehed St. Louis in December, 1864, they had marched some 
2000 miles through Arkansas, Indian Territory and Missouri and ruined their 
horses while bringing the war west of the Mississippi to an end. 

The last campaign of the 4th Cavalry was made in 1865. Union courage 
and confidence was at its height; The gallant Winslow led their brigade, 
Gen. Wilson commanded the cavalry and Gen. Upton was in charge of the 
raid. Selma, Montgomery and C<:>lumbus were captured. Selma had been 
most skillfully fortified and was defended by Forrest and Chalmers but was 
seized by a most brilliant assault, in which the 4th Cavalry took about 1500 
prisoners, three times their own entire number engaged, but they lost the 
gallant Captain R. E. Jones, the Iowa College youth mentioned later. 

Kichmond fell on the same d.iy with Sehua but the Yankee raiders didn't 
know it. They were off to Montgomery, and (he llag of the Union sup- 
planted the Confederate emblem on the rebel capitol without a battle. The 


Stars and the Bars went down as easily as they had gone up four years be- 
fore. Monti^omery felt the touch and the torch of war as never before and 
tlie torch was applied by the Confederates first. 

Columbus was within striking distance, a R. R. center, second only to Rich- 
mond in Confederate supplies. Howell Cobb, Buchanan's fiery secretary of 
the treasury, was in command there; Robert Toombs, who once told Boston 
that he expected to call the roll of his slaves on Bunker Hill, and who had 
been Confederate secretary of state, was there, also. A battle, the last great 
battle of those great raiders, made the flag of the Union the flag of the city 
one week after Lee surrendered in Virginia. Eagerly the army began to des- 
troy the military supplies in the city while Howell Cobb and some of his 
rebel soldiers flew away to defend Alacon. A boastful appeal for the defense 
of that city soon appeared, with the assurance that "as certainly as the sun 
shines we can whip the enemy." But the 4th Cavalry had fought their last 
battle before they reached .Macon. Sherman and Johnston closed the war 
by the use of their pens at Greensboro, N. C, April 2lst, 1865. 

In this last raid the 4th Cavalry, "apart from other troops," is said to have 
captured four times their own number engaged, and to have taken "21 pieces 
of artillery, 10 flags, 2000 stands of small arms and about 2000 horses." In 
all this Cm. \l earned its full share of honor. 

1( wc h.ive givcMi otlu'is but a laint glimpse of what the M\\ Cavalry accom- 
plished and of what their work cost then] we are content. 

We can not separate Co. 1; in much of its work from its regiment or even 
its brigade. We may not now name all Its members, yet we must mention a 
few personal incidents of Co. E. 

1. Samuel F. Cooper enlisted as a private, was transferred to the 40th 
Iowa Infantry and made its lieutenant-colonel. He led his regiment much of 
the time and especially across the river in the face of the enemy to the capt- 
ure of Little Rock when he was scarcely able to sit in his saddle. His super- 
iors connnended his heroism, 

2. In June, 1863, a detachment of 120 men were obstructing the ap- 
proaches to Vicksburg. They were attacked by some six times their num- 
ber. A howitzer was in charge of ten men, when suddenly Eli Allen and 
Henry Black (as Mr. Allen informs us) became aware that every one of their 
comrades was either dead or wounded. Even then they lingered to disable 
their gun, and dashed away to their fellows in battle-line under Major Parkeil 
of Grinncll. Rebels,, three lines deep, were before them, it was through 
those lines or surrender. The Major shouted, "Boys, surrender means Ander- 


sonvillel What shall we do?" Quick the men plunged into those lines. 
"Only 30 of the detachment reached camp." 

3. F.ujjene R. Jones, from Iowa College, was transferred to Co. C, and 
made its captain over the heads of several. While leading' his men over into 
the rebel works at Selma, April. 9, 1865, he was shot dead. 

4. At Columbus, Georgia, in the desperate nii^ht attack, April 16, 1865, 
Norman F. Bates, alsoJrom the colle^T, captured a rebel lla^^ and its bearer, 
and received the honor of a special tlecoiation. 

5. Joseph Lyman was transferred from Co. li, and made adjutant of the 
29th Iowa infantry. Me received ollicial praise for dislinf^uished ^''^H'lntry, 
especially at Jenkins Ferry, lie was then on his way to a judgeship and to 
congress in civil life. 

6. Members of Co. E had char^^e of some illustrious prisoners. The 
honor of capturing Jefferson Davis was reserved for others, nevertheless our 
Grinnell company had the privilege of endeavoring to arrest him and of suc- 
ceeding in caring for several eminent Contederates. Capt. Saint arrested 
Robert Toombs, Davis' first Secretary of State, and Sergeant Charles F. Craver 
commanded the detail which escorted Stephen K. Mallory, Secretary of the 
rebel Navy, Benjamin 11. Hill, Confederate Senator and General, and Howell 
Cobb, the I're.siJenl ot the mst Secession C^mgress and then a A\ajor General, 
as they set oni for New York as U. S. prisoners, in April, 1S65. 


Annual. Meeting of J 897. 

/. The State Conifre^atlotinl Asi^oclntlon In (irlnncll, 1856, 

(IJy Mrs. L. C. I'hclps,) 

No week was more pleasant to us all than the week of that first Association 
in Grinnell in 1856. Well do I remember how anxious we were, and how 
impossible it seemed to us that we could entertain so many. 

Mr. Grinnell had just come from the Association in Muscatine, and in the 
Church told our people that he had invited the Association to meet in Grin- 
nell the next year, and with his usual generosity, had told the Association he 
would have teams of some kind, not carriai^es or coaches of course. It had 
been long since we had seen any of those. We could only provide good, 
strong, double wagons, that would hold all that would come to Grinnell and 
would bring them from Iowa City free of charge. 

That was quite a gift for a young colony with no very rich men in it, was 
it not? Well, we wer^' .ill surprised and thinking \\o\y it could be dune. We 
knew l<uv.i College in h.n enpoi (, .md hoped it would be in Giinnell 
Si.)me time. A\ost ol tlie Trustees would be at the Association, so we let all 
doubts go and set all our will and eneigy to work, and did all we could to 
get ready for the first Association. 

Only think how much was to be done here, s'o few houses and not very 
many people in the place, but the old adage never proved more true than it 
did then, "Where there's a will there's a way." We were all as one family — 
that was the most beautiful part the C(>»lony life to think of. Some per- 
haps were situated so they could do more than others, but we all worked to- 
gether and did what we could. 

1 suppose you all know that Mr. Fhelps kept the first hotel in Grinnell. 
Only think of that honor— Mr. Phelps, landlord, and Mrs. Phelps, landlady, 
and though we did not seek that honor, we were obliged to take it, for the 
travelling public had to stay somewhere, and our home was called "The 
Phelps' House;" but when the time came to prepare for the Association, the 
sis,M) was taken down, never return, (or we e<uild no! keep tiiany of the 
A'.sociiilion, aiul as we had nitl gotten very rich with it, to my great joy, it 
came down. 

Then we planned to keep as many as we could. We had some boarders, 


but with them we kept twelve of the Association, and 1 can say that every 
family did as well, and entertained as well as they could. Of course we had 
no downy . beds, no one had in those days, but our dear ,t(uests had the best 
we had. 

It was a very happy week to all of us. How true it is that when the heart 
is Vight and we think we are doing our duty, it lakes but little to make one 
happy. Then when the last day came, huw could we get up a collation, for 
that was the custom in those days. The young people went to the grove and 
got some boughs and wild flowers, hxed them so tastefully in the school 
house that to look at them was to think of Fairy Land, and the motto was, 
in large letters, "Welcome to Our Prairie Home." The collation was said to 
be very nice; tables all around the room were made of rough boards. 

At the close speeches were made by "Father" Turner, Doctor Magoun, Mr. 
Grinnell, the two Mr. Adamses, Mr. Guernsey. Mr. Lane, Mr. Robbins and Mr. 
Emerson. Oh, they were so good, so true, 1 shall never forget thein. It paid 
us for all our anxiety and work, and it was always said that this Association 
did more to get Iowa College here, than anything else, owing to the energy 
and go-ahead of the town. 

II. Hon. n. G, Little and his Mayorulty. 

(Mr. Little's words were preserved, most nearly, in the columns of the Herald as 
glvoti here. His service to the town deserves a much fuller presentation.) 

Mr. Little came here in 1866, under the influence of Mr. J. B. Grinnell, to 
educate his three daughters. At that time there was one college building, 
and the college had a principal — Prof. S. J. Buck; a lady principal, Mrs. L. F. 
Parker; and four professors, L. F. Parker, H, W. Parker, Mr. Clapp and Mr. 
Von Coelin. He spoke of Prof. Macy and Secretary Robbins as two of his 
boys who were going through college under difficulties, and was warm in his 
praise of Gershom and J. L. Hill, who helped to pay their expenses by car- 
rying brick to build a brick college which was soon put up. At this time 
the C. R. I. & P. railroad had got only as far as Kellogg. There were three 
churches, Congregational, Methodist and Baptist. There were two hotels, 
the Reed House and the Bailey House, and about four stores. In 1869 Mr. 
Little was elected mayor. He was re-elected for four successive years, with 
no opposing candidate. At that lime the gardens and houses were fenced in 
and the stock ran at large. If you left your gate open your garden stud was 
all eaten up. There were multitudes of hens, and no property in the world 
of so small value, makes so much trouble in a neighborhood. One man 


HENRY G. LITTLE, Mayor, i869-'73. 


brought a lot of yoiin^^ evergreens here, planted them and mulched them 
with straw. The hens immediately scratched them to death. He ventured 
to remonstrate with some of the owners of the hens, who got very indignant 
over it, and declared they had a right to let their hens run loose, so he gave 
up the evergreen business. 

There was little public money in those days and there were few public im- 
provements. There were not forty rods of real sidewalk in the town. A few 
planks were laid down lengthwise and about a foot apart. Mayweed was all 
over town but people began to mow it and killed it. 

The council passed an ordinance which sentenced men taken up for drunk- 
enness to work for four or live days on city improvements. 

We had a very bad looking cemetery at that time. It consisted of that 
part of the present cemetery which is on top of the hill. More ground was 
bought, bringing it down to the road. In order to put in the drives and • 
other improvements the mayor issued a call for all men south of 4th Avenue 
to come and bring their teams. The men turned out well. A large number 
of them were students. The women of the town cooked and sent out sup- 
plies for the workers. The trees now found along the drives were planted 
then under the personal supervision of the mayor. The cemetery was named 
Mazelwood because of a thick growth of hazel bushes on the hill where the 
soldiers' monument now is. 

^\v. Little then spoke of the progress which had been made in the churches. 
The Congregational church had an open church trial which cured them of 
having another, ;^nd thereafter such matters were left to committees appointed 
for the purpose. 

He spoke of a good colored brother of the Methodist church who became 
so earnest over the personal responsibilities of members that he prayed: "0 
LordI Thou knowest that Thou hast said in Thy Holy Word, that every tub 
must stand on its own bottom.' " This same negro did good work in keep- 
ing the negroes of the town from committing thefts. 

At the end of the four years that Mr. Little was mayor, there were three' 
college buildings, and two more professors added to the faculty. The Grin- 
lu'll Herald was started in 1868. There were more stores started. The 
Grinnell block was built; and business was on the increase. The city has' 
gone right on enjoying a good healthy growth. 


The Fifth Annual Meeting, 1898/ 

At the Fifth Annual meetinj^ in 1898 it was found that, of those present, 
four came here in 1854, fourteen in 1855, sixteen in 1856, three in 1857, four 
in 1858, three in 1859, two in l86l, one in 1862, three in 1863, four in 1864, 
four in 1865, three in 1866, two in 1867 and eleven in 1868. Three groups 
were photographed, as follow: those who came here in l854-'56, in i854-'60, 
and l86l-'68. 

/. Professor Parker Before and in Early Grlnnell. 

(By L. F. Parker.) 

A suggestion that those most closely connected with the college should - 
notice themselves at this anniversary of the association in this college semi- 
centennial year, has seemed somewhat reasonable. 

Causes of results made manifest here, as well as causes of coming to Grin- 
nell, may be of some interest to those who have any interest in the autobiog- 
raphy given— hence the scope of this paper. 

It was my good fortune to be born in 1825 in the small town of China, in 
western New York, a rural region, conspicuous for intelligence, radical re- 
form, and religious character, hence a poor town for lawyers, and starvation 
for saloon keepers. Left fatherless at four years of age, a mother needed 
my aid on a small farm until I was twenty. It was a rare privilege for a boy 
to live through his teens in China, in New York, in the United States during 
1838 to 1845. There was much to stir his thought and rouse resolution, if 
he were inclined to think. 

If religiously inclined, Milierism with its huge wall pictures of all the beasts 
and monsters seen by seers in Daniel and Revelation, and with its half-dozen 
different proofs that the world would surely end in 1843, startled him to 
reflection. None in these days of self-confidence in new discoveries surpassed 
the Millerites, then. It took some self-reliance to stand on one's own feet 
then; some thought it showed downright impiety. 

The boy born in 1825 was five years old when Webster said in reply to 
Iluyne of Soulh Carolina: "When my eyes shall be turned to behold for the 
last time the sun in heaven, may I not see him shining on tiie broken and 
dishonored fragments of a once glorious union; on states dissevered, discord- 
ant, belligerent; on a land rent with civil feuds, or drenched, it may be, in 


fraternal blood." For that possible result, if slavery needed, men were then 
deliberately planning. It was the now obvious beginning of the end, thirty 
years later. Till that time the blaze, then appearing, grew hotter up to the 
conflagration in lS6l. 

The boy named could not forget that pro-slavery mobs had murdered 
Lovejoy and had come near to killing Garrison, nor could he fail to notice 
that anti-slavery petitions were spurned by congress, and John Quincy 
Adams, the ex-president, was censured for presenting them. Politics were 
made red hot in some minds by the slavery question — the boy became hot. 
He was not afraid of the name abolitionist, nor did he shrink from being in 
the minority. He welcomed it rather, for are not the best and the wisest 
always the fewest? He has even yet great sympathy for thuse who have, as 
they say, the "courage of their convictions." He, too, was in the habit of 
doing what he deemed right, even to discarding slave-labor cotton, because 
if everybody would do it slavery would cease, and therefore everybodj' ought 
to do it, and what everybody ought to do he ought to do, 

Udd, of course it was, but what dilTerence would that make? "Do right, 
though the heavens fall." 

After a time, however, an argument of Alvin Stewart of Utica led him to 
believe that the slave would prefer to have his fHttnci^ use his own products, 
and then spend what was saved in that way for the slave in other ways. 
Thoieiore he ci>uld use slave-labor cotton, feeling, however, that it created a 

He could not vote for James G. Birney in 1844, but wanted to desperately. 

Oberlin gave work to students. To Oberlin he started with five dollars in 
his pocket, leaving four of it along the way. Oberlin gave him opportunities 
for teaching, moderated his ultraism, made out his diploma, and furnished 
him a wife. 

on he went in 1853 to Brownsville, I'ennsylvania, on an engagement for three 
months, as that, friends prophesied, would be the limit of his active life. 

Three years of teaching there led to a conclusion to go west, locate, then 
stick, and grow up with the country as a teacher. Temptations to open an 
academy at Brownsville were oHered, but the west was too tempting. 

In 1856 Kansas was the focus of forces moving from the north, east, and . 
southeast, Missouri had invaded the territory, seized the government, and 
implied the code of Missouri upon the settlers. New l:ngland was on fire to 
savi' llic region for freedom; South Carolina and Georgia were ablaze to 
make the grip of Missouri on it omnipotent The general government was 


in sympathy with the south. But Lawrence was a plucky New England town, 
must he an educational center. It was worth tryinjj. 

The trip thither was up the Missouri river with a free state party. A special 
vessel was chartered at St. Louis. The city was hostile. Trouble was antici- 
pated on leaving. Word was given out that we would sail at 9 o'clock in 
the morning, — we went quietly nine hours before. On the way we touched 
at Lexington. When first seen the broad area from the landing revealed only- 
a single man here and there; when our gang-plank struck shore that area was 
a surging mass of armed men. They rushed on board, flew up the stairs to 
the cabin. At the top they met a semi-circle of men whose pistols were all 
ready for battle. "Is Sam Wood of Lawrence on board?" shouted the leader 
of the invaders as he halted before the semi-circle. A little, wiry fellow 
stepped out of that semi-circle toward the inquirer. "That's my name," said 
he. "Come ashore, we want to show you some Sharp's rifles." "Would you 
like to see the slides for them?" said the little Yankee, in reply. (The 
free-state men had taken the precaution to make the gun useless to the 
possessors if they were stopped on the way.) It was enough. Trouble was 
near. The steamer's bell rang; the wheels began to move backward; the 
men of Lexington flew ashore, and we left no freight at Lexington. 

A few weeks in Kansas was enough. No immediate need of schools. Real 
war was impending. Almost In the very presence of the committee from Con- 
gress while at Lawrence investigating tlie ballot-box frauds in Kansas, 
sherifT Jones was shot. Forces gathered; every citizen was armed. My last 
night in Lawrence was in a private house with a dozen others, two of them 
women, and every one of us lay down to sleep with a gun at hand, loaded 
and capped and with a further supply of ammunition to be seized for use if 
the long roll o.f the drum should call the town to defend itself. On my, way 
out 1 passed through a troop of 3oo of Col. Buford's men from South Caro- 
lina, who aided in the quick-coming war in which Lawrence was sacked. 

The money left to buy a lot in Lawrence probably aided some good free- 
state man; it never benefited me. 

Iowa next offered greatest temptations. Before going to Kansas, Rev. John 
Todd of Tabor had urged me to visit that place and promised that my salary 
as a teacher there should always equal his, at least by division of his, if neces- 
sary, but mine should never be lowered to raise his. My only objections to 
Tabor were geographical— too near Missouri, a slave state, and too near 
Nebraska, then no state at all, and so near to both as to be too far from most 
of lovva. 


MRS. L. 1'. l'AI<Ki':i<, :iKt; 7". i«vH. 


Pennsylvania friends introduced me to Des Moines, just then made the 
capital, Trunics were directed thither. OberHn friends on the way v^ave ad- 
vice. Rev. Geori;e Claric, an evan^^eHst, well known then in Iowa, as he had 
spent some time here, asked, "Where are you goinj^?" "To Iowa.'' "What 
place?" "Des Moines." "Don't you do it. Stop at Grinnell. It will just 
suit you. It is a temperance town, anti-slavery, growing like a spring 
flower and building a university." 

That was exactly what our classmate, Colonel Cooper, had said to my 
wife, adding: "Stop and see. Stay three months in the public school and 
then go on if you want to. 1 will not say a word." It was enough; a Grin- 
nell halt was decided upon. 

At Iowa City, at the end of the railroad, no extra stage could be sent on 
my arrival and a day was helpful in the State University, where algebra was 
the highest study, and there were sixty pupils scattered all the way down to 
the three R's. 

A call at the office of the state superintendednt (for the removal to Des 
Moines had not then been effected) revealed Jas. B. Eads as the incumbent, 
the only superintendent who ever left that otlice under a charge of pecuniary 
dishonesty in official service. Asked where there was a good opening for a 
teacher, "At Fort Madison, my home," said he. "How about Grinnell?" 
"Oil, good enough, it you on whistle through tlu'ir «.iuill." 

And NO 1 p.issed on to see how my lijis would lit their "quill." Grinnell, in 
September, 1856, had grassy walks, few houses, 200 or so inhabitants, most 
of them directly from New England, others indirectly from there, and one 
family from Maryland, with a real, live slave, old Uncle Ned, so old as to be 
unserviceable, yet cared for as kindly as if he had been the grandfather of 
the whole family. 

It was the beginning of things, of everything. The intelligence of the peo- 
ple, their cheerful acceptance of pioneer conditions, their purpose to make 
everything vastly better, and their spirit of pitching into everything that 
promised good with a cheerful abandon, and then with Mr. Grinnell a living 
sunbeam, omnipotent at home and an unpaid advertising agency everywhere 
in the state and out of it, I concluded this is the spot. 

However, men like Dr. Molyoke were not so sure that 1 was exactly the 
man, but llu-y kept quiet and waited. An Oberlinite was an object of suspi- 
cion, a crank, probably. This cropped out at the lyceum in which the whole 
town engaged during the first winters, again and again. That meeting guve 
us all a capital opportunity for acquaintance. Dr. Holyoke could display his 
manly conservatism, Mr. Gilmore his caieful, scholarly tone of miinl, Mr. 


Cooper his power of persuasion, especially when aroused, Esq. Gillett his 
love of humor, Mr. Hanilin his intense sincerity and advanced thought, Esq. 
Bixby his calm logic, anti-slavery sentiment and hij^h moral courage. R. M. 
Kellogg said little, but when he did speak his words had pith and point and 
usually hit a head. T. B. Clark enriched the hour by his full quota of hard 
sense. H. M. Hamilton and Rev. Samuel Loomis spoke only occasiunally and 
always said much when they spoke. Rev. S. L. Ilerrick was deliberate and 
a balance wheel in debate. .Vlr. Grinnell was too busy to elaborate argu- 
ments on abstract questions, but his words always brought practical infor- 
mation and new courage. There, too, the women brought their contributions. 
All in all, that lyceum was stirring, harmonizing, exceedingly useful. 

The school for the first few weeks was in one room, and 1 had the honor 
of having a class of four small boys in the alphabet, — one of my best classes, 
indeed! Prof. Atlantic Phelps may remember those weeks before he passed 
out of my room into Mrs. Cooper's. 

Grinnell University was in prospect, an excavation even then showed 
where the first building was to be located, every town lot sold increased uni- 
versity funds, the school was made by directors and teachers strictly prepar- 
atory for that institution. Students were invited from towns and counties 
around. Teachers were needed in schools which were springing up in every 
tliroctiiMi. The inimber til studv'nts ini,-i i';isi\l somewhat rapivlly, tor the town 
■AUi\ legion around were setllii\g and students c.ime, in considerable numbers, 
from other towns and distant counties. 

The county superintendency was created in 1858 and the Grinnell superin- 
tendent was the first to hold that office in this county. It had the efTect in- 
tended, that of making the desire of attraeting students to Grinnell more 
widely known, and of turning attention liere for teachers. The county su- 
perintendent discovered several boys and girls of fair mental proportions, 
one lad in Sugar Creek who grew up into Prof. Macy, and another in Bear 
Creek who became Prof. Manatt. 

The children were growing up into the generous forms of mature life 
which we have so long admireil, the people were patient, the directors were 
not e.xaclin}^ henci' Hie school iK'vcloped very peaceiully. Only one very 
striking demonstration was conntcted with it. 

Among the 'foreign' students an American citizen of African descent drop- 
ped in occasionally from Miss(niii. An eil'ort at one school meeting was 
mauc lo exclude these. The m(:»li()n was made to exclude all 'foreign' stu- 
dents. The superiiilendent showed that home students were in every class; 
no advanced class was U.k) lari-^e; loreign students paid several hundred dol- 


lars in tuition, and made the classes more interesting. If the motion should 
carry, we should lose that sum and save nothing. Some classes would be 
reduced to a single member. Then the question would arise, "Shall the dis- 
trict continue an advanced class for one student?" The result was that the 
mover alone voted for his resolution. Then came the straight proposition 
to exclude negroes. The feeling was intense, but largely suppressed. The 
friends of the measure were in a minority of five by ballot, and on a second 
trial by rising, in a minority of eight. It was evident that that was not the 
end. Morning came. Two gentlemen appeared at the school-house to eject 
the boys. They found that the superintendent would defend every student 
permitted by the board of directors to attend. The colored boys had not 
reached the school-house. They were intercepted while on the church 
grounds. The town was aroused. The boys themselves and men on both 
sides were armed. The danger of bloodshed was extreme. Discretion, how- 
ever, proved the better part of valor. The boys were persuaded not to in- 
sist on their l ights at that lime. (irimu'lTs lirsl and only embryo \nob dis- 
solved without a bloody termination. The term closed at once — a few days 
before the regular time — the boys engaged in summer work; the Civil War 
broke out. That solved the negro question for Grinnell and for many a 
place besides, 

11 is iiiti'i esiiuv: now, as we look b.ick on the events (»t a generation ago, to 
notice wiuil vaiied motives intluenced our decisions. Men sincerely consci- 
entious could not always agree then; they cannot always now. A few years 
go by; they almost forget what they thought before. Colored men now are 
permitted to stand or fall on their merits,— not because of their color. 

Iowa College trustees closed the college at Davenport in 1858. A year 
was given to relocation. They visited Grinnell. We offered them our "Uni- 
versity" property, the campus with the building on it, town lots, the funds 
on hand, and a subscription,— the total amounting to ^4-1,000 as we estimated 
the anu>unt, and to $36,000 as they valued it. We v/ere inclined to insist on 
co-education, but, at Air. Grinnell's suggestion, did not, with the expectation 
that it would come without insisting. We also surrendered our plan that 
the Ladies' Department should be managed on the Mt. Holyoke plan, and 
that the building for the girls should be half a mile from the boys' dormito- 
ries, near where Col. Cooper's house now is. In 1901 Col. Cooper's place 
has bccniiii' the property of I'rot. Almy. All that was no l(»ss. 

Tlif trustees determined in IJ-lS'.^ to remove to Grinnell, and then asked liie 
supei intendent of the public schools, Rev. Mr. lierrick, and Q. A. Gilmore, 
Esq., to provide instruction in the college building lor the higher classes and 


without expense to the college. The first two on the committee complied 
with that request, and their compensation was the infinitesimal surplus left 
from tuitions at four or live dollars a term, after paying current expenses for 
fuel and janitor's services. The superintendent gave only half of his time to 
the public school during that year. 

The next year, 1860-1, the college trustees took direct control of instruc- 
tion in the college, and made the superintendent of the public school princi- 
pal of the preparatory department at a salary of ^'1600, and Kev. Messrs. Her- 
rick and Reed assistants. 

And here we close with i860. The college developed till 1865, when its 
college classes were complete and its presidency was tilled. The nation has 
struggled desperately, till the desire of Washington, of Franklin and of Jeffer- 
son for freedom to the American slave has been realized. A generation length 
has passed, and still we are content with our town, our state and our nation. 
Not that either is absolutely perfect, but that all of them during the passing 
years are making it more and more impossible to become pessimists. 

But while acknowledging my indebtedness to all these and to my old 
friends, you will permit me to say that my debt in life is greatest of all to a still 
earlier friend, the one who taught with me in Pennsylvania and in Iowa, the 
one who has tempted you to be generous to the whole family because it was 
her t.unily. , 

(Miss Fannie Dickey, of Shel^ield, then sang "When the Heart is Young," 
and was followed by Prof. Buck's paper.) 

//. Prof. Buck Comes to Grlnnell. 

It was proposed to me to give some account of educational matters, in- 
cluding my service as county superintendent of schools. 1 understand that 
in preparing these papers it is permitted to mention the circumstances which 
led to the coming here. 

In 1863 we, as a family, were living in Orwell, Ashtabula County, Ohio, 
and in charge of an academy located there. Ashtabula County is the north- 
east corner county in Ohio, and is in the congressional district represented 
by Joshua R. Giddings and James A. Garfield when in congress. 

Mr. C. W. von Coelln and wife called upon us. lie was a recent importa- 
tion from Germany, coming in charge of Rev. and Mrs. F. L. Arnold, who 
(»iu\' resided here. Mrs. Aiiiolcl was a German whom Mr. Arnold married 
when a missionary in Africa. Mr. von Coelln had been a student in Orwell 
Academy, trying to learn Onglish. He evidently made rapid progress in con- 


jugating the verb "to love," and so was soon married to Miss Goodrich, the 
daughter of a Congregational deacon of Orwell. I was then supplying the 
Congregational church there. Mr. von Coelln and wife had been away 
where he was teaching, and returned to visit. 

While making the call above mentioned, Mr. von Coelln said that he was 
about to go to Iowa, naming Des Moines as a place he might visit. 1 said to 
him, "When you are out there find a place for me." He replied, "Would you 
come?'" I said, "Yes, 1 think so." I gave it no further thought or attention 
until a year or more afterward, when an invitation came to become principal 
of the preparatory department of Iowa College. It came from Dr. Molyoke, 
then chairman of the executive committee, through L. C. Phelps, secretary 
of the committee. 

It was promptly accepted, and Feb. 5, 1864, we reached Grinnell, then the 
western terminus of the C, R. I. & P. Ry. It was the time of a winter thaw, 
and we walked from the depot, where now is the freight depot of the Rock 
Island Ry., diagonally across the park to the corner of State street and 4th 
avenue, the house then occupied by Prof, von Coelln. We walked straight 
over, not taking the sidewalk, because there were then no sidewalks in town, 
it was our first experience with Grinnell mud. We remained at Prof, von 
Coelln's one night, but the next day wi' were at home at the corner of Broad 
street and Sth avenue, the house now occupied by Di\ Harris, Sr. Col. S. F. 
Cooper then owned the house, was in the army located at Little Rock, Ark., 
and Mrs. Cooper was spending the winter with him. Col. Cooper had kind- 
ly sent word that, until our goods arrived, we could occupy their house as 
our own. The faculty of Iowa College then consisted of Prof. L. F. Parker, 
senior professor of Latin and Greek. Prof. C. W. von Coelln, Mathematics, 
Mrs. L. F. Parker, Lady Principal, and the afore-mentioned S. J. Buck, princi- 
pal of the Preparatory Department. Less than 100 students had been cata- 
logued—the previous year, 98. The same year brought Prof. C. W. Clapp, 
Prof. H. W. Parker, and May, 1865, Pres. G. F. Magoun, pres. -elect, came to 
begin his work as President of the College. 

In 1865 1 was elected County Superintendent, and entered upon the service 
in January, 1866. Early in 1865 I had begun to supply a little company of 
people meeting in a school-house at Chester. June 25, 1865, a Congrega- 
tional church was organized, and 1 cont.inued to supply them till the begin- 
ning of the next year. A large accession had been maile to (he membership, 
wliki) lu'arly doubletl before I h'lt Ihein, It was against the strong pro- 
test of the little church that I left them to assume the duties of the county 


At the beginning of this work there were 65 schools to be visited. By a 
school as here mentioned is meant to be scholars taught by one teacher, 
whether in a rural district under his charge, or a department of a graded 
school as found at Brooklyn, Grinneil or Montezuma. This work was done 
as an avocation in connection with a full quota of service in the college. My 
predecessor had contracted with the Board of Supervisors of the county to 
visit each school twice each year. Being in poor health and a little slow 
about it, he found himself near the close of his ofiicial career with quite a 
number of schools yet to visit, and but little time. Some people might say 
long on schools and short in time. He made haste io lly about and cover 
the territory. He would ride up to a school-house, see the teacher, ask a 
few questions, sit a little while and begin to show uneasiness, pull out his 
watch and say, "I must be going," and very soon be otT. By making very 
short calls, he made a good many in a day. The Board of Supervisors then 
consisted of a member from each township, — 15 in all, as Sheridan had not 
been organized, and Chester and Madison were each nine miles long east and 
west, and joined farms. Hon. E. Snow was then chairman of the Board. It 
came to the notice of the supervisors that my predecessor had made rather 
short and formal calls. When they made a contract with me they stipulated 
that I must visit each school twice each year, and also spend half a day at 
each visit. This seemed lo be visiting the iniquity of my piedecessor upon 
my devoted head. However, 1 could not tind fault, as they paid all the sal- 
ary asked. It was doubtless a better plan than the other. The County Su- 
perintendent was then largely in the hands of the Board of Supervisors. 
They could employ the ofiicer more or less time as they pleased. They con- 
tracted witli me to visit schools each twice per year, and spend half a day 
per visit. I was also to conduct the monthly teachers' examination, and pro- 
vide for the teachers' county normal institute. Many teachers came for a 
private examination and paid one dollar for the examination. I was also re- 
quested to lecture once a year in each district township. Lest this service 
all-told would be too much for me besides my regular college work, I was 
permitted to employ assistance in the visitation of schools and the examina- 
tion of teachers. Several were called into the service, — Prof. L. F. F^arker, 
who was the first county superintendent in the county; Prof, von Coelln 
also did some of this work, and used to refer to his experience in after years 
when he was State Superintendent of [-"ublic Instruction. There was one 
vi'iilur I deputi/ccl who got over the line and was visilini; a school in another 
county and somehow discovered his mistake. If he does not say anything 
no one will know who it was. Sometimes 1 found myself elected to spend 


half a day in a school where the number present was very select. I remem- 
ber a half-day spent in a school when 20 per cent, of the scholars was absent. 
Before you correct the bad j^rammar of niy last sentence allow me to state 
that the total enrollment was 5 pupils and one small boy was absent. 1 do 
not now recall whether it was whoopinj,^ cou^h, measles or truancy, the fact 
was only four small children were present. The teacher was a bright woman 
and had a regular working program providing for recitations and study. She 
did not stop to do tatting or read light literature, but kept the little folks 
busy and was herself fully occupied with her task. It was very interesting 
to me and showed well the benefit of a good working plan. 

The roads in the county were quite remarkable then. From Grinnell to 
Montezuma is less than fifteen miles as the crow tlies. The roads over the 
prairies were as nearly straight as they could be and keep on the best route and 
as level as practicable. When people began to fence up their farms the roads 
must needs follow section lines. Then the distance to Montezuma became 
20 miles plus the ups and downs of hill and valley and the bridging of streams 
became a necessity not known before. 

School-houses have multiplied and while the type of the country school- 
house has not greatly improved, those in the villages and cities have changed 
very much for the better in thirty years. Some of the high school buildings 
arc' models of .uohitedure and convenience. Furnace or steam or hot water 
he.vters ate used, proper lighting secured and some are well ventilated, with 
seats convenient and lit, while grounds are carefully looked after. 

In my visits about the county the people showed kindness and hospitality 
as a rule. My horse had as comfortable a corner in the barn or shed as could 
be found. Much oftener in a shed covered with poles thatched with straw or 
prairie grass than in a barn with plank floor, 1 well remember a very cold 
night being entertained in the humble cottage, the home of an early settler in 
the N. \l. corner of the county. When I retired it was to sleep between feather 
beds and with the man of the house. 1 never knew before how poor a con- 
ductor of heat and consequently how warm and comfortable such a cover 
could be. Will those who have thus slept between feather beds please raise 
their hands? About iS responded to this vote. 

Not a few cases of appeal were brought before me during my term of of- 
fice. It became my duty to summon witnesses, admiiiister the Oath to those 
called, and listen to the questions and pleadings of lawyers and then to de- 
cide the cases. It was my g()(>d fortune never to have a decision reversed by 
the State Superintendent. 

Some branches have been added to the subjects taught in the rural schools 


and graded and high school courses have been established and much more 
continuous service of teachers been secured in both village and city schools. 
The county normal institute was then as now a factor to be dealt with. 

For three several years the board printed my annual report made to them 
for distribution in the county. In these reports recommendations were nude 
and in most cases action followed in accordance with the points suggested. 
No very urgent appeal was ever made to the board and then denied. 

1 mention an incident which occurred. One time the county treasurer sent 
by me ^2,000 in cash to deliver to the treasurer of the Independent district of 
Grinnell. It was late in the day when I started for home from Montezuma. 
There were long stretches of the way out of sight or hearing of any one liv- 
ing on the route. 1 have never become accustomed to carrying as much as 
$2,000 in my pocket for any considerable time. It was a distinct sense of 
relief which came to me when I had unloaded the package safely at the end 
of the route. It was not the best way to send money, A bill of exchange 
on New York or Chicago is safer and better, but there was no one at Monte- 
zuma who could draw the proper paper. 1 was talking with Hon. C. H. 
Spencer about the matter afterward. He said that while he was express agent 
at the drug store on the corner of 4th avenue and Main street, there came in- 
to his hands a package of $175,000. That was enough to make him a little 
nervous. While he still held it, a stranger came into the store and simply 
stood about, not making any errand. Finally Mr. Spencer asked him if he 
wished anything, and the man said, "Nothing in particular." Then Mr. Spen- 
cer raised a revolver and pointed him to the door and told him to go in- 
stantly, which the man did without any delay. He did not, know but that 
his caller wished to relieve him of the care of his valuable package. 

Once in visiting schools at Malcom, when it became time to start for home 
at night a severe blizzard came on, a blinding snow storm. Soon every trace 
of the track was obliterated. Old Whitey, my faithful horse, formerly the 
property of the county sheriff for several years, an animal that knew the 
road better than any man, brought me on. I became thoroughly chilled and 
blinded by the storm, and had nearly given up the expectation of reaching 
home, and expected to sleep the sleep that knows no waking. But thanks 
to the instincts of my horse, I was brought in safety to the home of Mr. 
Bateham, four miles east, and there was made comfortable for the night. 
Many a time the same faithful animal brought me home from Montezuma, 
starting at dusk or after dark, keeping the track often narrow, never running 
a buggy wheel olf the end of a culvert or bridge or getting me into a slough. 
She became acquainted with my business and would take me from one school- 


house by the nearest practicable route to the next, and stop there without 
jiuidance with the rein. She would carry me upon a saddle, six, eight or ten 
jniles per hour, as seemed necessary, with a motion nearly as easy as a rocic- 
ing chair. 

I remember to have been at the house of Rev. A. Chapman when Mr. Kim- 
ball of the C. R. I. & P. Railway was there to arranj(e for the location of the 
depot and the town-site of Alalcom. Mr. Chapman then kept the postoftice, 
and the mails were exchanged with trains which did not stop by suspending 
a mail-pouch from an arm on a post at a crossing of the railway and the road 
running south. It was caught on by the moving train and a pouch dropped 
olT at the same place. 

My term of service lasted three years. The first term of two years was 
past; a re-election for two years more followed. At the end of the first year 
of the second term I concluded to listen to invitations which had been re- 
peatedly urged to return to the supply of the Congregational Church of 
My resignation was presented to the Board of Supervisors, and 
Prof. L. F. Parker was appointed to fill the unexpired terjii. 

///, Prof. Macy's Words. 

[As 101)01 tcil In Giiiuu-11 lIoraK!, Marcli iS, 189R.] 

The hour for adjournment having arrived, Prof. Jesse Macy spoke inform- 
ally for a few minutes along lines suggested by the two previous speakers. 
He, too, was a member of a family who refused to use the product of slave 
labor. As he was brought up by a Quaker father, he was naturally anti- 
slavery in his opinions. He gave an account of the impression which the 
town and its founder made upon Mr. James Bryce, M. P., during his visit to 
Grinnell in 1890. Mr. Bryce addressed the students in College chapel in the 
afternoon and J. B. Grinnell appeared in the audience. After the lecture he 
had a few moments conversation with Mr. Grinnell and he was led to exclaim: 
"O that my friend Freeman were here! If he could but hear what 1 have 
heard lie would build an altar and olt'er sacrifice. It would bring before his 
mind the stories of the Greek heroes, who went forth and founded colonies, 
giving their own names to them. rrcem;m would be so allcctetl by this that 
you could not i)top liim; he woukl surely oiler sacrifice." 


The Sixth Annual Meeting, 1899* 

/. Grlnnell as Seen in California, ' 

[By Tilson H. Bixby, Esq.] 

Mrs. Bixby and I have been spending the last three months in Southern 
California. We will return to our Washington home in a few days. We 
have had a very enjoyable time visiting relatives and seeing many old-timers 
of Grinnell. 

While in Pasadena we called on Q. A. Gilmore. He is rather feeble, yet 
well preserved for a man over eighty years of age. His daughter, Dr. Marcia, 
superintends all his business matters. I also met Charles Hamlin and Mr. 
Leighton, formerly of Grinnell. At San Bernardino we visited Mr. Muscott's 
family and met Mr. and Mrs. Benoni Howard and Mr. Bradford. We had a 
delightful visit with Mr. and Mrs. S. H. llerrick and other friends at Riverside, 
a township of twelve thousand acres of orange trees. Here we met Mr. 
Chailes Janes, secretary of the Y. M. C. A. He"is now in Denver in the same 
work. Lunched with Mr. and Mrs. Pearson, old-timers and well preserved. 
We visited my sister, Mrs. A\arshall Bliss, at San Diego. She and lier husband 
are spending the winter there, hoping that the climate may be beneficial to 

A visit one day with Mr. A. P. Phillips and daughter, Grace, was made es- 
pecially delightful by a drive through one of the seven parks of this city (Los 
Angeles), containing fifteen hundred acres. The whole outfit, five persons — 
Mr. A. P. Phillips, Mrs. A. F. Gillette, Mrs. Bixby, Mae Bixby and 1, with the 
horse and car/iage—'dW migrated from Grinnell. We received a pleasant call 
from Dr. Brainard. He is one of the leading physicians here and dean of the 
Medical College. 

Rev. Dana W. Bartlett's Bethlehem Institutional Church is located in one 
of the wards containing twelve thousand people, with sixty-five saloons, one- 
third of all here. This is the only church of the kind in Southern Califor- 
nia. This ward is very thickly populated and is called the slums of the city. 
Mr. Bartlett is accomplishing wonders in this district, living right among 
them. His house is close to the church. The church building is open every 
day and evening in the week for Christian and educational work. He has in 
connection with the Institutional Church a Children's Church of seventy-five 
members. The Sunday I attended his church nine little ones were received 


into the Children's Church. The manner of receivinjj them was simple and 
very impressive. Mr. F:li P. Clark, son of T. B. Clark, an old Grinnell man, 
is a resident here. He is president and nianai;er of one of the electric rail- 
ways of this city. He purchased all the equipments and put into operation, 
in 1891, the firsi electric railroad of California. Lewie Bliss, son of Deacon 
Bliss, Sr., has been a resident here many years. Mrs. k. F. Gillette is living 
here with her brother, J. M. Armstrong;:. One dauj:(hter, Alae, livini,' in the 
same family, has been in the kinderi^arten work of the city schools for the 
last three years. 

George F. Hill is in the real estate business. Fred Burlew with the Emmons 
& Emmons law firm. 

On our way down here from Tacoma we were pleasantly entertained at 
Campbell by Col. Cooper, his brother. Dr. Charles N. Cooper, and Mr. A. G. 
Williams and family, formerly of Chester. Rev. Mr. Windsor, pastor of the 
Campbell Congregational Church, and brother of Mrs. Dr. Cooper, was of 
the first giaduating class of Iowa College, ISS'I, then located at Davenport. 
We attended church one Sabbath in San Jose, and heard a good and impres- 
sive sermon by Rev. Mr. Tenney, late of Grinnell. Miss Loie Hedges is the 
leading pharmacist at El Monte, a town fifteen miles from here. 

Los Angeles, Cal., A\arch 6, 1899. 

//. The CoTjorc'^iitlonal Church;' Its First rwcnty'fhe Ycnrs. 

[Mis. J. B. Grinnell, one of the Charter Members.] 

The founders of this town were earnest. Christian men, who desired to 
build up a community in which religion and education should be of para- 
mount importance. They were of New England origin, some living there to 
the time of their removal west; others having lived in other states for a time, 
but being in hearty sympathy with the Chiistian ideas and institutions. 

The first home was in a log cabin about three miles west of this site. Seven 
were present at this first religious meeting, fifteen at the second, and thirty at 
the third. This was during March and April, 1854, while they were preparing 
slielter upon the prairie. Later, meetings were held in what was known as 
the "Long Home," situated on what is now Broad Street, near Dr. E. H. Harris' 
piosenl residence, or in some other residence. At the second meeting held 
there, wink' the lk>me was yet without a root, it was resulved that a sermon 
should be ii'ad when no minister was present on the Sahhalh, and a prayer- 
meeting should be held on each riiursday evening. Mrs. Plielps relates that, 
arriving in their wagon at noon in July, and having gone to sleep in the after- 



noon, they were awakened by sinjjing; that she never heard music so sweet, 
and soon learned that the men had come in from their work and were hav- 
ing worship after supper. She said to her husband: "Well, Loyal, if we have 
got into a place where they will sing and pray when they are so tired, 1 think 
we have got in the right place." They had commenced their Thursday even- 
ing prayer-meetings either there or in the homes of the other settlers and she 
adds, "1 know they did much to help us lu\ar the trials and perplexities of our 
pioneer life." 

During the summer and fall of that year a building was put up for a hotel 
on what is now Main street and Fifth avenue.* The upper story was fitted 
up with seats and used as a place of worship during the winter. 

Mr. Gideon Gardner and son lived at the grove which we called Gardner's 
grove, now known as Jones' grove. They were musicians. Each played an 
instrument and came once a week in the evening for practice in singing. We 
formed a choir under the Gardners' leadership and much enjoyed those even- 
ings together. 

After several preliminary meetings the formal church organization was 
elTected on April 8, 1855, under the leadership of the Rev. Samuel Loomis, a 
brother-in-law of Mr. Henry Hamilton, une of the original four who came 
first upon tlie ground. It was at the home of h\r. Phelps, on the corner 
where now stands tlie Cass and Works block, and consisted of twenty mem- 
bers, only four of wliom now survive and three are living in town. Previous 
to this the pleaching had been supplied by Rev. J. B. Grinnell, who declined 
any compensation other than the good will of the people. 

Communion service was held the first Sabbath in July and fourteen addi- 
tional members received. 

A temporary building was erected which served the purpose for church 
and school during the aummer of 1855 while building a good school house. 
A lower room of the newest school house was occupied for services during 
the winter of 1855-'S6. In the spring the upper story of the same building, 
a room forty feet square, was used. In this room the General Association of 
Iowa held its memorable meeting. 

Rev. Mr. Loomis remained with us but a short time and Rev. S. L. Herrick 
was invited to supply the pulpit. About 1857 Rev. L. C. Rouse moved here 
from Ohio and joined with Rev. Homer Hamlin and other ministers on the 
ground in maintaining the regular services. 

In I he year i860, Rev. J. W. Hathaway, of Maine, was called to act as pas- 

♦The Spauldiiit,' Opera Iloiuio is now (1901) niipoarlu}; there. 





tor. During that year the wood church was erected which was twice en- 
larged, and was used until our present church home was ready. 

In 1863, Rev. S. D. Cochran was called to the pastorate and installed, but 
left us in 1869 to assume the presidency of a college at Kidder, Missouri. 

President Magoun of Iowa College then officiated until 1870, when Rev. 
W. W. Woodworth came to us. He also was installed and remained with us 
until 1875. 

There were various supplies during 1S76. In December of that year Rev. 
J. M. Sturtevant, Jr., was called to act as pastor. lie entered upon his duties 
Feb. 10, 1877, when we were commencing the building of the Stone Church. 

A record of the first twenty-live years of our church life would be quite 
incomplete were no mention made of the work of the ladies. 

In 1855 a society was organized called the "Ladies' Social Circle," to meet 
once in two weeks, its object being to promote acquaintance and assist in 
v/hatever benevolent work came to hand in our own midst, or to send aid to 
others in need. 

At the time of the State Association in 1856 the ladies present held a prayer- 
meeting by themselves in the library of Mr. Grinnell's home, and when his 
north parlor was tinished weekly meetings were held there on Tuesday at 3 
\\ M. A A\.\tern;\l Association was ftMiUfd with meetings once a month, and 
Liter the W, r.. r. U. 

L'.ich week a meeting of some kind was e.vpected, and they were continued 
with few interruptions until the parlor of the Stone Church was ready in 

The "Ladies' Social Circle" aided the building and furnishing of the church 
which was erected in i860. When the war broke out the name was changed 
to "Soldiers' Aid Society," Garments were made and sent to the soldiers, 
lint scraped, and aid rendered in various ways. After tha war the name was 
again changed and called the "Ladies' Benevolent Society," which it has re- 
tained to the present time. 

The "Young Ladies' Social" was the name of a society organized in 1869. 
They made fancy, work for fairs and festivals, sent boxes in aid of Home 
Missionaries, arranged for lecture courses, and were very successful in all 
their efforts. 

The "l adies' Foreign Missionary Society" was started the same year, and 
meetings were held monthly on the platform of the church. 

The ciui'stion of a new cliuich was agitated lor si^me time, but no move 
made on the part of the bretlii'en. The ladies determined to make a start, 
and took subscripti<.)ns among themselves. Several agreed to give twenty- 


five cents a month. One lady said she was intending to buy a new cloak. 
Supposed it would cost twenty dollars. She would wear her shawl and give 
the money. We hoped the brethren would be spurred to action, but it was 
not until 1876 that the church clerk records a request that Dr. Magoun pre- 
sent the subject from the pulpit. The result was ^15,000 subscribed, and in 
due time the work was commenced. 

When it was ready for furnishing, the two ladies' societies paid for the 
window glass, the gas fixtures, the carpets, cushions,- chairs, pulpit furniture, 
conference room, parlor and kitchen requirements, at an outlay of several 
thousand dollars. They also gave five hundred dollars towards the organ. 

The women of the Church have been leaders and workers in various organ- 
ganizations. They have been chosen as deaconesses, Sunday school officers 
and teachers. It may truly be said that they have faithfully borne their part 
in all the church work. 

The last services in the old church were held May li, l879, which v/as a 
Alemorial service. The new church was used for the first time on Wednes- 
day evening, May 14, for a lecture by Rev. Joseph Cook, and on Sunday, 
May 18, we first worshipped there. 

The church has been blessed with many memorable and precious revivals. 
Previous to the labors of a settled pastor in 1863 over two hundred had 
united with tlio original twenty and in 1877 we numbered five hundred 

///. The Spencer Family and First National Bank, 

[Henry C. Spencer, Esq.] 

The following reference to the family of the late Hon. Charles H. Spencer 
is made at the request of Prof. L. F. Parker, president of the Old Settlers' 
Association of Grinnell, that the same may be preserved as a part of the 
histories of families which made Grinnell their home during the early period 
of the settlement of the township of Grinnell, and which perhaps may be 
appropriately read on this occasion. 

Mr. Spencer came to Grinnell in March, 1856; his family at that time com- 
prising his wife, Mary Havvorth Spencer, and two sons, Charles Haworth and 
the writer, aged five and three respectively. During his residence in Grinnell 
twu children were added, a son, Louis E., born July 22, 1856, and a daughter, 
Mary I:., born November 4, 1859. 

The oldest son, Charles, died in 1868. Mr. Spencer died in 1892, and his 
wife died in 1894. 


Of the surviving children, Louis E. resides in Des Moines, Iowa, Mary E. 
(Mrs. Geo. A. Dudley) in Denver, Colorado, and the writer in Grinnell. 

Mr. and Mrs. Spencer were both of English extraction, the former a native 
of Connecticut, the latter of New York. They removed to Grinnell from 
near Watertown, N. Y., in 1855, going first to Montezuma, where a brief stay 
was made; thence to Grinnell, where a permanent location was found. 

Mr. Spencer was a merchant and established his store where the Vanderveer 
building now stands, at the southeast corner of Main street and Fifth avenue. 
His first residence was immediately north of the store and across the avenue, 
a building which has since been moved a few rods to the east, and is now the 
Clifton homestead. 

A little later he purchased the tract of land situated north of Sixth avenue, 
between West and Broad streets, then considered out of town, and recon- 
structed a house thereon, owned by a Mr. Sherman, v/hich was his residence 
until 18S2, when, on account of the necessary absence of his invalid wife, he 
sold it to his son, with whom he made his home until his death. 

In 1859 Mr. Spencer purchased the interest of Geo. E. Holyoke, a nephew 
of Dr. Thus. Holyoke, in the firm of Thos. Holyoke & Company, that interest 
being the brokerage and real estate department, which was developed and the 
private banking house of Thos. Holyoke & Co. was established, of which 
Mr. Spender was the manaiiing partner, Dr. Holyoke devc>ting his time 
largely tc the practice of medicine. A drug store was also owned and con- 
ducted by this firm in connection with the bank, and Mr. Spencer in the care 
of this branch of the business became a practical pharmacist. 

During a part of the sixties Mr. Spencer was also the resident agent of the 
United States Express Company, and the busy store where these various lines 
of business were conducted, was a well known frame building located on the 
northeast corner of Fourth avenue and Main street on the site where the 
clothing store of Mr. V. G. Preston now stands. 

The business at this point continued until 1866, when the needs of the 
growing village for increased banking capital and facilities opened the way 
to the incorporation of the First National Bank of Grinnell, of which Mr. 
Spencer became the cashier, and the bank was removed to a small frame 
building, erected for the purpose on the lot immediately west of the present 
banking house of said bank. During Mr. Spencer's residence in Grinnell he 
was honored by his fellow citizens by preferment to a number of public 
offices, among which may be mentioned treasurer of Iowa College 1863 to 
1865, mayor of Grinnell 1879 and 1880, town trustee, county supervisor, and 
representative for Poweshiek county, i9th General Assembly. 




Mr. Spencer met death at the age of 68, in a railroad accident at Colorado 
Springs, Colorado, August 15, 1892, and was interred on his family lot in 
Hazelwood cemetery in the company of many of his neighbors and friends 
whom he loved so well. 

He had spent a busy life and sickness had been unknown to him during his 

In connection with this paper the writer has been requested to give a brief 
history of the First National Bank of Grinnell, which is as follows: 

Early in the year 1865 Thos. Holyoke and Qhas. H. Spencer inaugurated a 
movement to organize an incorporated bank, under the National Banking 
Act of the United States, approved June 3, 1864, to be called the First 
National Bank of Grinnell. They met with success and on the 6th of June, 
1865, the following gentlemen signed the organization certificate: E. Rogers, 
J. B. Grinnell, L. F. Parker, C. G. Carmichael, Bliss & Cooper, L. C. Phelps, 
P. P. Raymond, Geo. I. King, John Brown, Thomas Holyoke, P. G. C. Merrill, 

D. T. Miller, Quincy A. Gilmore, E. H. Harris, L. J. Chatterton, Erastus Snow, 
Lucius C. Rouse, Newton L. Sherman, and Scott & Potter. On the iSth of 
January, 1866, the bank was chartered by Freeman Clarke, comptroller of 
the currency, and authorized to commence business. The charter number 
was 1629, and the capital slock ^50,000. Tlie term of the charter was for 
twenty years. 

The list of stockholders, when ready to commence business, was as follows: 

E. Rogers, J. B. Grinnell, Thos. Holyoke, C. G. Carmichael, W. F. Coolbaugh, 
Alonzo Steele, L. C. Phelps, P. P. Raymond, Q. A. Gilmore, L. J. Chatterton, 
Erastus Snow, Geo. I. King, D. T. Miller, John Brown, L. C. Rouse, L. N. 
Sherman, R. M. Kellogg, Henry Sherman and D. E. Jones. 

The lirst board of directors comprised the following stockholders: C. G. 
Carmichael, Erastus Snow, Thomas Holyoke, J. B. Grinnell, L. J. Chatterton, 
L. C. Phelps, Alonzo Steele, E. Rogers and Q. A. Gihnore. 

Erastus Snow was the first president and Chas. H. Spencer was cashier. 

Hi 1868, the bank having outgrown its small quarters in the frame building 
located immediately west of the present quarters in the new bank block, at 
that time just completed by Mr. Grinnell, and although the room has been 
somewhat remodeled, still occupies the same banking house. 

In 1871 the capital of the bank was increased to )i^lOO,000, and in 1885 the 
cliarter was extended for another period of twenty years. 

The I'irst National Bank has buen well known to the older residents of this 
community, having been for a period of many years the only bank in Grin- 


nell, and during that period having furnished to a considerable degree the 
capital with which many enterprises of the town were started, and many 
farms in the vicinity developed and improved. 

The presidents of tlie bank have been Erastus Snow, Thos. Holyoke, J. B. 
Grinneli, Alonzo Steele, Chas. F. Graver, H. K. Edson and J. P. Lyman. Mr. 
Lyman has served at two dill'erent periods as president of the bank, and is at 
the present time its eflicient president. Several of the presidents have served 
in the capacity of vice-president, and in addition thereto Benj. Tinmierman, 
S. A. Cravath, G. Al. C. Hatch and D. Vanderveer. 

Mr. Spencer was succeeded by his son as cashier. The tellers have been 
Jas. H. Scott, Geo. H. Hamlin, now the cashier of the Merchants' National 
Bank of this city, and Mr. H. F. Lanphere, the present uflicer. 

The accountants have been Mr. Geo. H. Hamlin and Mr. S. J. Pooley, the 
latter acting as such officer at the present time. 

The present board of directors comprise: Alonzo Steele, Jonathan Child, 
H. K. Edson, G. M. C. Hatch, David Vanderveer, S. A. Cravath, J. P. Lyman, 
R. M. Kellogg and H. C. Spencer. 

Mr. J. P. Lyman is the president and David Vanderveer vice-president. 

Of the original members of the organization only two are livini;, Mr. R, M. 
Kellogg and Prof. I.. F. Parker. 

As .\n Indication oi dovotopmont of business in Grlnnoll since the your 
the bank began businoss, perniil !\ie to reler to the comparative bank deposits 
then and now; 

The semi-annual return to the treasurer of the United States made to the 
first of July, 1866, showed the average deposit up to that date to be $10,652, 
and this was the sole bank in Grinneli at that time. 

On the 9th of March, 1899, the books of the bank show a deposit of 
$175,521, with tour other banking institutions, contemporaries. 

The three incorporated banks of Grinneli show an aggregate deposit on 
March 9, 1899, of $-182,547, and it is fair to estimate that the volume of all 
bank deposits on that date, including the private banking interests, would 
aggregate a half million of dollars at least, which, considering the conserva- 
tive and plodding character of our little city, is a creditable indication of its 
steady development.* 

Grinneli, Alarch 17, 1899. 

♦The deposits in the First National aud in the Mercliauts National alone, on July ist, 
1901, at'gregatcd 5593,220.81.— P. 


The Seventh Annual Meeting, I900» 


/. The Poor Boy In Grinnell, 

The months since we last met here have hrouj^ht sunshine and shadow to us 
all, though, it may be, in varying proportions. Let us hope that joy has always 
predominated even though an unusual number of us have been forced to join 
the procession where souls weep and eyes are filled with tears. Our com- 
mittee on Necrology will utter their thouglits and ours on this occasion as 
they recall those who will not meet with us again. Your presiding oflicer, 
then, may presume to consider but a single topic, especially as it is one 
which spans the history of the town. 

We may divide the world of man into two classes according to their pre- 
vailing tendency to regard this life as a paradise or a purgatory. These 
are found everywhere. Perhaps we all cross the line frequently between 
them swinging, like a pendulum, from optimism to pessimism and back again 
with insufficient reason. In the grip of a neuralgic spasm it is easy to be a 
pessimist; in the glow of rv'lurning healtii it ought to be just as easy to be 
an optimist, if we cannot walk the narrow line of exact truth it is better to 
lean toward the happier side than the opposite. On this point if we can not 
become full lledged Christian Scientists it will be well to borrow some of 
their plumes at least, tor their rule is to think of the better and the best as 

Some one in pessimistic mood has said that this is no country for a poor 
boy. This is a good year to deny that allegation. John 1. Blair has just 
closed his life, leaving some J}^100,000,000 to his heirs, although he began it 
as a penniless boy, and earned his first dollar by selling sixteen rabbit skins 
for it. The president of the United States was a poor boy a few years ago, 
and he is but a specimen of a host of our most envied American citizens. Of 
such Iowa has its share. Leslie M. Shaw is its governor largely probably by 
the grace of inherited poverty, and the Scotch speaker of our national 
House of Representatives, David 13. HenderS(jn, rose to that dignity by the 
giit, the energy and the character which an empty pocket had stimulated in 
this state. 

I'oweshiek county, too, is ofticered by the sons of toil. We have seen 
many of them grow up from straitest beginnings into the lives we love to 


honor. Grinnell, like the county, the state and the nation, had found its 
best servants among self-made men. A father's good-will and a motiier's 
blessing were the chief outfit of its founders and its ollicers. They inherited 
muscle and brain and little or nothing else. The use they made of that pat- 
rimony was to their own credit. The present mayor of the town, Samuel 
Nelson, is a representative of all these, for he came here with $125.00 only, all 
of which he had earned, and then took the hrst job that offered. That was 
not the lightest work in the city, yel it was some of the best. It was carry- 
ing a hod in the erection of a college building. Our Irish mayor has been 
our typical American. Honest industry has put into hi.s pocket a hundred 
times as much as he brought to us and crowned him with the respect of the 

In 1857 a boy of l6 came to town with his widowed mother to learn what 
Iowa was reserving for him. He became a student in Iowa College in its ear- 
hest days before a catalogue was published here. He then turned to farming 
and worked four years for SO acres of land and a fifth year for a yoke of o.xen, 
and earned fencing foi- his farm by splitting rails on shares. Since that time 
he has added goodly acres to his first SO and covered them all over, not with 
mortgages but with waving harvests and loaded fruit trees. His nursery, too, 
has added materially to his inciMne, and enriched many another farm. At 
presmt the hopelul boy of lorty-odd years ago is a somewhat intiim man, 
.md yet he has no dread of the public poor-house while 'the government 
claims $140.00 annually of him in taxes. To you 1 need not say that I speak 
of Albert G. Williams. 

The first strong manufacturing company in Grinnell consisted of three 
members eventually. Its original capital was furnished by a man who was 
plumped into business by his father on a bare farm where he must pay for 
all utensils, teams and supplies on it. No man made longer days or put 
harder work into them. No one saved minutes or money more rigidly than 
he, Tlie spirit of economy came with him on his first visit to Grinnell, for 
Levi Marsh told the Sabbath school at the first opportunity after it of his 
ride with that "rich man" a few days before. Seeing a piece of board in the 
road the New Yorker said to Mr. Marsh, "Please stop. Pine is scarce here. 
That pine will kindle fires where 1 am stopping." 

Tint capitalist said to a friend one day, "1 want a well-known young man 
witlu»ut mi^ney, whohasa reputation for indu.stry, economy and honesty, to 
take cliarge of a lumbei yard in town, putting his service against n]y capital. 
Where is he?" "He is the clerk of Charles W. Hobart. Perhaps you can get 
him." The two formed the lumber firm and were prosperous. They changed 


from lumber to the manufacture of headers. In the meantime a young Irish- 
man had come to Iowa College with about 51,000, had graduated with that 
sum practically unimpaired. He had been an orphan boy in an undesirable 
family until he ran away to find a welcome among New England Yankees. 
His patriotic ears heard the call to service in the ranks through the four years 
of the civil war, and his fortune had made him familiar with battle fields and 
with Libby Prison. A law course had lollowed his college graduation, and 
he became the collector and attorney tor that firm. One year was enough 
for both parties. He was Ihe very man needed to round out the tlrm. The 
business improved till Chicago tempted them away, as people believed, with 
some half million in their i)ockets. 

In 1855, Bath, N. H., lost and Grinnell gained a modern Yankee family of 
quiet enterprise. The husband and father had means enough to build a small, 
plain shelter for his wife and five children, but not enough to shelter himself 
while tanning such skins for gloves as the vicinity afforded. His wife cared 
for his children and aided in sewing gloves. Frederick W. Morrison rarely 
spoke in public on any subject, while he thought diligently. He studied his 
business as a science and mastered it as an art. The demand for his work 
grew as its excellence became known. Assistants were employed, buildings 
weie erected, salesmen carried his manufactures over the state and be- 
yond it. 

His son, David Sutherland, took up the business as his successor. He had 
learned it from its very alphabet, but the failure of others reduced the assets 
of the enterprise to zero in 1878. Character and its reputation, created cour- 
age and its created skill alone remained. They were ample now. Twenty 
years later that glove business had enlisted other capital; it is supplied with 
raw materials gathered up by a personal tour through European mountains, 
gives employment to 125 operatives, and its annual output is worth about a 
quarter of a million dollars. No man has a better standing or can get any 
amount of money which he may need on better terms than Mr. Morrison or 
his business associates whose financial history has been much like his own. 

Between 40 and 50 years ago a boy of 13 left his home in northern Ohio 
to rustle for himself. He rustled. His first year of self-direction was under 
the wage system which seems so servile to some. He received the starvation 
recompense of >pSO for the entire time, but the next year carried his wages up 
to jsJ50.00 from the same Ih'm. That boy at 15 received seven times his for- 
mer salary because he had demonstrated that he would earn it. Years were 
passed by Charles R. Morse in the Union army and elsewhere before he came 
to Grinnell. 


He lias served the town in civil oHice and out of it, has made business a 
success here and elsewhere, and given away as much properly as he now 
owns, nevertheless he now pays the larj^est tax that is paid in town. No one 
need apply to him for employment unless he shows some of his own qualities, 
such as promptness in action, hdelity to every liusiness trust, and makes his 
word as good as his oath. 

His house, the best in the city, is a perpetual suggestion to the penniless 
boy of to-day of what he may hope for if he has the purpose and the power 
of a certain penniless boy of some 50 years ago. 

Not long ago one of our too numeiuus gentlemen of leisure called at my 
neighbor's door, asking for a lunch or some old clothes. "No man ever had 
a better right to become a tramp ihan 1 had when I was a boy," was the re- 
sponse to the unaspiring beggar, fiis thought was exactly right, but there 
was one element of inaccuracy in the statement, for the neighbor never saw 
an hour in his life when he would ask for a thing for which he was unwilling 
to pay a fair price. 

When Ilrastus Snow was twelve years old, he read by the light of blazing 
hickory, "Wanted, a boy in a printing ofiice. Apply here." It was a spark 
on tinder in his young Si.uil. Ten minutes later the father was putting a note 
for n'^o, signed by litlle Trastus, into his pocki't, and saying. "1 guess I shall 
alw.iNS ha\e mone\' due me." I'h^' lui^ther responded, "That note will be 
p.iid." i hal note was lor the bov's lime (ill he should be of age. It was 
p.iid three )e.iis .ittcr it was given, and wIkmi the maker was receiving 550 for 
his first year, $\0^) for the second, and $lSO for the third. Before the boy 
was 21, he had relieved the old homestead of its mortgage, and more than 
verified the mother's confidence. His home town in New Hainpshire gave 
him employment and confidence, but he wanted to go west. 

Half of Mr. Snow's 80 years have been spent in Grinnell. He has served 
the public in various rehdions, in piloting the school district out of its early 
debt, as hrst president of tlie First National Bank and (jf the Grinnell Savings 
Bank, as an officer in the Grange Store and in the Farmers' Mutual Insurance 
Co., as County Supervisor in the years when railroad bonds were most em- 
barrassing, and as a member of both branches of the State Legislature. His 
motto has always been, "Be sure >ou are right, then go ahead." He has taken 
pains t" ho right, and has then gone ahead, even if he has gone alone, until 
he coul.l draw others to his side. 

The best m his life he attribides to the impulse of that mother's early con- 
fidence that he could and would do>vhatever he should promise. That con- 


fidence lifted the boy into a very early manhood, a manhood of aspiration 
and of successful effort. 

One of the oldest law firms now in this region was ori;anized in Grinnell 
nearly 30 years ajjo, and neither of its members was an heir of Dives. Robert 
M, Haines and Jacub P. Lyman graduated from Iowa Collev,'e at or below the 
zero point financially. They had carried themselves through the institution. 
Both then taught in public schools and in the college, both have held impor- 
tant public oHices, Mr. Haines having been state senator four years and a col- 
lege trustee about 20 years, while Mr. Lyman has been mayor of the city and 
county attorney through two terms each and is now a rein-esentative in the 
state legislature. "Self-made men" in the noblest sense they are. They "made 
themselves," securing the best opportunities for development which manliest 
wrestle could obtain. Our town honored them as teachers, prizes them as 
lawyers, and is proud of them as citizens. Such "poor boys" have never be- 
come "poor lawyers" in Grinnell. 

David W. Norris, of the college class of 1872, opened a law office in town 
23 years ago. He had had the experience of a farmer boy and had early 
learned to push and to plan for himself. He opened that law ofhce without 
a dollar in his pocket and received nothing from his fathiM's estate which 
was not encumbered by a debt equal to its full value. When he writes for 
the public press his p<'n is hunling tor scalps more trequenlly than angling 
loi compliments, lie iiidulgi's in no conscious llatteiy, und his announce- 
ments of his public sales are interesting specimens of a blunt description of 
his stock even if it is below par. The deserving poor readily e.xcite his help- 
ful sympathies. No one accuses him of increasing his income by misrepre- 
sentation, and no bank in which he is influential will become oppressive. His 
note is now bankable for tens of thousands, thanks to his early circum- 
stances which developed that rugged self-dependence. 

Some half century ago, on the Vermont hills, where the soil was said to be 
"too poor to sprout white beans," a boy began to grow toward manhood on 
a rented farm. Men could grow there even if white beans couldn't! At 19 
that boy otfered his widowed mother )f350.00 for his time. In February she 
said he "would be gray as a whari rat before he would earn that amount t)f 
surplus;" nevertheless she had every dollar of it in her pocket the next Sep- 
tember, only seven months later. The boy had earned it by jobbing and 
working day and night, while wearing his old chjtlies until an average tramp 
would have deemed them a dishonor to his dignity. He now remembers with 
pleasure that he never joined .i labor union t<j resist "the encroachments of 
capital," and never shot a "scab" who was so unlit to live as to be willing to 



take a place which he had abandonedl Capital always sought just such men, 
and any man was welcome to a place he did not choose to retain. 

He always practiced what he preached in Grinnell a few years ago to a 
complaining seeker for work. "Shall I tell you why you can't get work?" 
he said to the hopeless man. "Yes." "It is because you want the biggest 
wages going and you don't earn them. Now get a job at a low price. Earn 
more than you get. You will soon have good work and good wages." 

That preacher was Henry W. Spaulding. He came to Grinnell in 1876 and 
began lummering out his fortune here on an anvil. Charles H. Spencer, the 
friend of all such men, aided him by a loan to engage in a more lucrative 
business. His buggies have already been sold in every state and territory 
west of the Mississippi, in Tennessee, Illinois, Mexico and Canada. He em- 
ploys 150 men, contributes a large sum annually directly to the support of 
the government, while his benevolences in a single year have required four 
or five figures of dollars to express them. 

Such boys as he was enjoy every hour of their wrestle with their environ- 
ment. Not for such did Whittier write: 

'•Ah, tliat thou couldst know tliy joy Q/i ^-1/1 /f Qj 

Kre it passes, barefoot boyl- JL*J^j|0^i^±»J 

It has been but a few months since members of a business men's meeting 
in Dt'S M( lines invited a Grinnell man in tu make a speech. "I can't. 1 am 
no si'holar," was llie reply, "Coiiie along. You must," they insisted. He 
yielded. When c.illed on he said; "1 can't say anything to you who are as 
old as 1 am, but to those younger 1 would say, 'Look out when you make a 
bargain, and after that stick to it if it takes all the hair otT from the top of 
your head.' " The audience burst into a vociferous cheer. There had been 
nothing like it. No more was said. That was enough. It was capital. 

It was an echo, substantially, from, his father's early instruction to him 
when he went out as a salesman: "Sell these goods as well as you can, but 
be sure to give good weight and good measure," was his charge. Thus from 
that father Joel Stewart received lessons of honesty, but not a penny for his 
own pocket. 

That boy has been among us some thirty years, and never yet have we 
heard a word against his business integrity. His word is as good as any 
man's bond. Young persons here and there attest his helpful generosity. His 
neighbors and his man-of-all-work told me a few weeks ago that he was the 
best man in tiie world to work for. 

His luiMiu'ss vigor and discrelion have increased the zero from his father 
to ;* pr''pnly (Ml which he pays nearly the l;n>;c'st. tax in town.** 

♦Since the above was written tiic rininK ":Slewiirt Libr;iry" tuiildinj.,', niven by lilni tu 
the city, attcyls hi3 ability and generosity. 


In this connection we would gladly traverse college history, if time allowed, 
and notice those who left here after graduation. Such young men as the 
Hills and the Musons, the Manatts and the Shaws, the Herricks and the Rouses, 
the Adamses and the Eshbaughs, the Havvleys and the Wilsons, the Herriotts 
and the Wiilards, and such young ladies as the Apthorps and the Snells, the 
Clevelands and the Givens, and many others, all of whom have won place 
and influence by personal excellence and energy. There have been nobler 
successes, too, than the financial, in college and out of it, by personal push 
and resolution, but we have limited ourselves to those who have remained in 
Grinnell, and to very few of these. The mere suggestion of those Grinnell 
boys who have become professors in the college will be enough to occasion 
reflections which will be more valuable than words can be. 

The time at command will not permit a specific notice of the many others 
in Grinnell and away from here who deserve it. The town is hemmed in, 
also, by farmers whose life-work would add force to the point we are making, 
such men as the Shermans and the Hayses, the Sanders brothers and Henry 
Booknau, and a host of others. A careful examination of the history of all 
those who reside here and who pay the largest taxes either here or elsewhere 
fails to disclose more than one who inherited a liberal fortune, and the prop- 
erty of that one was amassed by a man who began business life by sleeping 
uiuh-r the cai t at night which he drove by day. We do not tind a single law- 
yer, merchant or mechanic wlu) has ( t'.r lived here, or a banker, professor, 
minister or farmer who has not been the architect of his own fortune. As 
boys they have all been fathers of themselves as men. 

A search for the conditions and causes of their financial success reveals 
several that have been common to them all. They are as follows: 

1. They have had fairly good health. 

2. A fair degree of good fortune. 

3. Business sense. 

4. If on a salary they earned what they received, 

5. The spirit of push that will find a way or make one. 

6. A business character so made up of intelligence and integrity as to win 
the confidence of patrons. 

7. Economy. They were careful to spend a dollar only for what was 
worth a dollar to them, and then spent less than their income. 

"But," says some one, "the times are very dilTerent how." 

True enough. They have always did'ered year by year, nevertheless there 
never was a time when the qualities illustrated by these men have not been 
in demand or have not been winning qualities. There never will be such a 


time unless the world loses good sense or God abandons the government of 
human life. 

The man who either can not or will not bring any brightness or blessed- 
ness into this world will never be its idol or its hero. He who can or will do 
both will always find a welcome and real success here and everywhere. 

The lesson of Grinnell history, yes, the lesson of human life is full of hope 
and of promise for every one who will minister resolutely and intelligently to 
human needs. For the poor boy with a useful brain and a strong brawn 
Grinnell has many a blessing. For the idler and the loafer, the sneak and the 
thief, for the pretender and the pessimist, our town holds out little encour- 
agement, and will shed few tears or none at all when he disappears. In this 
matter Grinnell resembles all the world through all human history. Grinnell 
is an excellent place for a poor boy if the boy carries the embryo man under 
his jacket. 

The old Romans had a maxim, Per angusfa ad ait^uata. We may translate 
that liberally and adopt it as our own, "Through diiliculties to victory." 

For a poor boy there is no better place than our own country, our own 
state, or our own town. There is no better place to develop character on 
the highest plane, or even on the lower plane of mere finance. Doubtless the 
Pullmans of the future will imitate the Pullman of yesterday who transferred 
Iho control of parental wealth l\o\\\ sons pampered by Chicai;*> indulgence 
to a son in-law developed into manliness by Iowa frugality. 

//. "Our First Years In Grinnell," 

[By Mrs. Maria Parks Kellogg.] 

My grandfather, Deacon Simon Parks, was a pioneer in Ontario Co., N. Y. 
His wife was Abigail Tracy. Of a family of three sons and four daughters, 
my father, Philo Parks, was the youngest son. He inherited consumption, 
and in 1856 his physicians said that (jnly a permanent change of climate 
wouhl prolong his life even a few months. So, after wailing to cast his vote 
for John C. Fremont for president, he, with his family, (myself excepted) left 
the beautiful farm which he had redeemed from "the forest primeval," leav- 
ing ht-re and there untouched spots of nature's own beauty. He knew that 
his hoLisL> must be very small in Grinnell, with no rof)m for my piano, so it 
was dci'iiicd best lor me to remain til! spring tocoiUinue my musical studies. 

I slaitecl west in April, calletl on my uncle, A. T. j-arnam, in Sheflield, III., 
and there I met Col. S. 1". Cooper, We arriveit at Iowa City, then the ler- 



minus of the railroad, too late for the re.i^ular stage. We hired a hack. Oh, 
dearl Such roads. It seemed as if the journey was one continual series of 
low hills with a slough between each one. Not a slough was bridged. The 
forward wheels would go down, down sometimes to the hubs, tlien, with a 
lurch, the horses would pull the back wheels down and out. It seemed as 
if we hardly got settled till we came tt) another, frequently a worse one, when 
the gentleman would alight, quite likely have to assist in prying out the 
wheels with a pole carried fur the purpose, tlien walk across on hummocks 
of grass. But all journeys end eventually. We entered Grinnell on what is 
now Hamilton avenue. My tirst cordial welcome came from Mrs. Cooper, 
their home being the present residence of Mrs. J. K. James. My parents lived 
in a small house which stood on the site of my present home, the northwest 
corner of High street and Fourth avenue. When spring opened father built 
a large barn (destroyed by a tornado in l86l). We occupied it while the 
house was being built. It still stands on the top of the hill above the Mor- 
rison tannery. Carpets were used lor partitions, the piano box fitted with 
shelves made a nice cupboard, and we made merry over our high ceilings and 
draped walls, and over the billowy carpets when the wind lifted them from 
the floors. It was not cold and it did not blow all the time. There w^s of 
ciHirse no chimney and the pqu' of (he kitchen lloor passed through a hole 
in the side of the barn. When the wind was in certain directions no lire 
could be kept in the stove. Then a small sheet iron stove placed out of doors 
was used occasionally, but if baking must be done a kind neighbor, Mrs. 
Davis, allowed us to use her oven. 

The most unpleasant feature connected with our summer's sojourn in the 
barn was the fact that the oak lumber with which it was built was inhabited 
by a family named cimex leclularius (bed bugs) so numerous and which mul- 
tiplied so rapidly and had such a voi acious thirst for human blood, that only 
by a diligent and almost perpetual warfare were we enabled to sleep at all. 
Few, if any, houses were free from this pest. 

In May a festival was held in the upper room of the school house. Mrs. 
Scott wished to furnish ice cream, but where could she get ice? No icfe 
houses in those days. 1-inally .\\r. Scott remembered a pile of straw and 
found beneath it sutlicient ice to freeze the cream. 

Wiien the Fourth t^f July came we held a celebration. It had been arranged 
that our Sunday sch joI should meet the Newton school at a point about half 
way between the two towns and celebrate the day together. 11 did not rain 
and we had a fine time. I remember Mr. Grinnell proposed that we meet 
again the next year in the same place, riding there in the cars. The i)lan was 



not carried out as the railroad did not reach .Grinnell until 1863, 1 think. 
The next Fourth of July quite a party rode to Newton and the better ac- 
quaintance made during tliat long ride, resulted in at least one wedding', for 
the next April, 1>S5';, Kayniond M. Kellogg and Maria P. Parks started on their 
wedding journey, and are still jogging along together.* 

By this time there were enough buggies here to accommodate the party. I 
was strongly impressed when I lirst came here with the cheerful way almost 
everyone bore the discomforts, even hardships, of pioneer life, even those far 
advanced in years, who had all their lives been accust(,>nied to commodious 
houses, ani|)le and well lilled cellars and store rooms, wood sheds, large or- 
chards, abundance of wood near at haiul. Here, such a change! Cold, small, 
houses, all the wood must be brought from the grove several miles away, 
and when, as one man remarked, you had to warm a forty acre lot, it took 
a large quantity to keep even comfortable. The meas^er diet,— no fruit could 
be procured at the stores except raisins and Zante currents. Canned fruit 
was an unknown C(unmodily. Lzven the once despised dried apple was a 
luxury highly pi i/ed and eagerly soui'.lit tor when some one wouUl send to 
triends in the east for a barrel of nice ones, it was almost impossible to 
keep vegetables from freezing, tven potatoes were scaice and high priced. 
And the nuid! We think now we have mud, but the mu.l of those days was 
the blackesl. .slickiest substance, one can imai;ine, so adlusive that it is a well 
remenU>eied tact lliat men used to carry wooden paddles in their pockets to 
scrape it oif with when the load became loo burdensome. Not a foot of 
sidewalk in the whole town, and the prairie grass did net make a good sod; 
even boards were too scarce and costly to use for walks, so the wood was 
sawed close to the front doors so the chips and saw dust would mingle with 
the mud. Occasionally someone would start out with a load of straw, scat- 
ter it along the sides of the streets and for a few hours we would, in appear- 
ance at least, have golden streets, and the' comfort of it lasted much longer. 
Then, how we missed the trees! In our beautiful city with almost too much 
shade, one can scarcely believe that in 1851 tliere was not a tree or shrub in 
the whole town plat, not a clump of trees between here and Brooklyn, or for 
miles north or south. But trees were soon planted and thrived luxuriantly 
in the rich soil. However, there were compensations, not the least being the 
abundance of beautiful wild flowers. What ccuild be more attractive than to 
gaze i;; oi) acres and acres of vi(jlels, a veiilable blue carpel.'' A little later 
came liic wild phlox ado/en varii'ties, as piclly as (jui phlox drummijiid 

♦iMr. Ivellogg died Lclorc the next meeting of tlie old settlers. 


(although the bright pink prevailed). These followed by others all the sum- 
mer through. 

The cordial kindness shown by everyone to strangers, vying with each other 
in an eflort to make them feel at home. It was a community of educated 
people, cultured, rellned ladies and gentlemen, drawn together by congenial 
tastes and interests, religion, temperance and education being foremost. 
Church services on the Sabbath and the weekly prayer-meeting had full at- 
tendance. When home talent got up a concert the whole town was in attend- 
ance. We had a number of good soloists, an excellent quartet — Mrs. Parker, 
Junie Phelps, Mr. Ladd and James Porter, an orchestra, led by Wm. Beaton, 
whose playing we certainly enjoyed, even if it would not be styled strictly 
classical in these days. 

We had excellent lectures and other entertainments by home talent, and 
frequently noted men visited the new town and lectured, and maybe occupied 
the pulpit on the Sabbath. 

There was the Lyceum, exhibitions by the pupils of the public school, fes- 
tivals to raise money, picnics and other social gatherings. Organizing the 
Grinnell Lyceum was one of the means used to lessen the monotony of pio- 
neer life. Its meetings were always well attended and it was a real educator, 
keeping us in touch with the older sections of the country, for we had no 
daily papers, ;is I ho great viuoslions of the day were discussed by men with 
bright, vigorous minds. Often questions of only local interest were settled 
in these meetings. Of those who were prominent in these debates, 1 recall 
Quincy A. Gihnore, once a teacher in the famous Boston Latin school, who 
merited Well the appellation "Silver-Tongued Orator," Prof. L. F. Parker, Col. 
S. F. Cooper, S. Cooper, better known as "Scotch" Cooper, Amos Bixby, Dr. 
E. H. Harris, A. F. Gillette, who was both witty and wise, R. M. Kellogg, 
president at times. Rev. S. L. Herrick, others that I do not now recall. I re- 
member once the question before the society was whether it would be advis- 
able to admit ladies to "Grinnell University." Mr. Herrick spoke on the 
affirmative, and one point which he made was that when youths attended a 
college exclusively tor men, where in the six or more years of college course 
they seldom met ladies in a social way, they were apt to become awkward 
and easily embarassed when, after graduation, they were expected to take a 
part in the social amenities of life, and related an incident: A young man 
fresh fiom college attended evening church service and, as the custom was, 
v. i'.hid to escort a young lady to her home, but in his einbarassment he asked 
hei to go home with him. lie thought had he attended a co-etlucalional 
school it would not have occurred. The exercises were varied sometimes by 




literary entertainments, when ladies read papers and some of the better 
speakers amonj^ the school boys declaimed. Chas. F. Reed was one of the 
best of these. Of tlie ladies who took part were Mrs. L. F. Parker, Mrs. S. F. 
Cooper, Miss Saraii Osborn, a lovely yoiini( lady, a former pupil of Col. and 
Mrs. Cooper from Akrun, Ohio, who came to teach in the primary depart- 
ment ot tlie scho(jl, Lucy I3ixby, Mrs. Amos Hixby, Mrs. Wolcott, Mary 
Grinncll, Mary Parks, Mrs. Wyatt, Funice Lonj^worthy, Philomela Bartlett 
and others. 1 remember once Mrs. Parker was on the proi^ram for an essay. 
Then, as she has been ever since (until now), she was a very busy woman. 
She had a table full of boarders, no .^irl, little ones to care for, besides teach- 
ing a class in French. When the last evenini,' before the lyceum convened 
came, she had not found time to prepare her article, but her introduction 
excusing herself for reading a selection instead of an original article was a 
spicy article in itself. 

To-day for the first time she is absent from the old settlers' annual gather- 
ing. Her interest does not f]ag, and although we may nut greet her in person, 
we know she is with us in spirit, and I'm sure we all unite in wishing for her 
a speedy recovery.* We miss many others who will meet with us no more 
in our annual gathering. 

*Slu' I'iir ^cit iisvay ill luue, nu)uim'(l by all wlio kiu w Iht. M. P. K, 

PLAT OF 6RI^NELL, Drawn by Mr. R. M. KelloffS. as It was In June, 1855. 
when he arrived here. 



20 9 

4 • VI. 

6 • 

©5 7 O 


• 8 







2 9 

• "9 














VIII. 3 


>> PARK. << 
S) XIII. (( 
<< ^° >> 








1' H 1 K D 








14 • 




MKu'k 1. 






1 • 

11 « 



20. Chambers 12 5 

1. W. S. Leisure 12 i 

2. Hotel 7 4 

3. L. C.'Pljclps 10 8 

4. Miss Debby Hays 4 6 

5. Mr. Thomas Hays 1 6 

6. ''Long Home" 10 6 

7. Scott's Store 12 6 

8. S. N. Bartlett 3 iS 


9, School House 3 14 

to. -Park — 13 

11. Levi Marsh 12 11 

12. J.B. Grinnell 3 18 

13. Carleton 11 16 

14. Henry Hill 12 22 

15. James Bodurtha 11 24 

16. .^brain Whitcomb, the largest in 
town, had just been blown down. 

Thos. Holyoke was on his farm at the head of Fourth Avenue. 

Amos Bixby was one-quarter mile south of the Town plat, on tlio east side of East St. 
A. F. Gillette, half-a-mile south of the plat, on the west side of East St. 
Homer Hamlin, northwest corner of West St. and Sixth Ave, 

I think the only houses at present stantlini^ on the orij^iiial site aie, a part 
of Mrs. J. B. Grinnell's and the stone and grout part of the Chambers' Hotel, 
now the Manitou House. [The "Manitou House" has now (July, 1901) been 
displaced. The new Opera House will appear soon.] 


///. ''Spotted Fever" In Grinnell In 1862. 

[By W. H. Newman. M. D.J 

Durinj^ the winter and sprinj^ qf 1862 a very malignant type of Cerebro- 
spinal fever made its appearance in Grinnell and surrounding country. Dur- 
ing the months of February and March there were only a few sporadic cases, 
but toward the latter part of April and in the beginning of May the disease 
became epidemic. At that time, and particularly here in the west, this disease 
was not well understood, and, in fact, even at this late day (1900) there is much 
to learn concerning the cause, treatment and prevention of this dread malady. 
Cerebro-spinal fever was not recognized in liurope as a distinct disease until 
1801, and in America the first cases occurred in Medlield, Mass., in 1806. 
From this date up to I8l6 there were local epidemics in several localities in 
the United States. In 1822 an epidemic occurred in Middletown, Conn. 
After 1837 epidemics were frequent in various parts of the world, but from 
1850 to 1854 it was unheard of anywhere. In 1864 at Carbondale, F\a., 400 
persons died of the disease out of a population of 6,000. From 1863-1891, 
2,575 such deaths occurred in Philadelphia. These facts show something of 
the capriciousness as well as the malignancy of this disease. The epidemic 
in Grinnell in 1862 was the first instance of the disease in the west so far as 
can be ascertained from the medical literature at hand. 

Few of us of the younger generation can in any decree realize the terrible- 
ness i>f the epidemic in Grinnell in '62, or the feelings with which tiie Inhab- 
itants of the town were overwhelmed when it was first announced that an 
epidemic of "spotted fever" was at hand. Here was a little prairie town, a 
New England village of some 350 souls, living at peace with God and man. 
They were without the conveniences and facilities of civilization. The physi- 
cians, although well up to the standard of the average practicioner of that 
day, were as yet without the hypodermic syringe, the clinical thermometer, the 
hot water bag. The most common disinfectants were then practically un- 
known, carbolic acid was not in use, and the many perfect products of the 
chemists' and pharmacists' art, now considered indispensable to ihe ^ arma- 
mentarium of the medical practitioner, were then absolutely unknown. Even 
the bath tub, the sine-qua non in the treatment of cerebro-spinal fever, was 
wanting in Grinnell at that time.* 

Ceiebro spinal fever is usually ushered in with a severe chill, followed by 

•Prof. L, I'". Parker, liowevcr, liad one niiule, aiul ten years Inter a bill for same whs 
Hunt to him at Iowa City, and althouKli by tlial tline the liath tub was botli worn out and 
out4awcd, Prol. Parker paid the bill, Ji2. 



more or less fever. Vertigo, headache, nausea and vomiting are usually 
present. Soreness and stilfness of the muscles of the neck and back are 
almost invariably observed and frequently tetanic contractions of these mus- 
cles occur. The head is frequently drawn back and fixed rigidly. Swallowing 
is painful. In some cases the intellect remains clear to the last; in others 
there is complete stupor from the start. In the epidemic form blotches or 
spots as large as a half-dullar and varying in cohjr from a light pink to dark 
red appear over the body. These spots are not a true eruption. They are 
more like a mottling of the skin, and are due to disturbance of circulation in 
the skin. These spots, when present, forjii the surest sign in the disease and 
it is from the occurrence of these spots that the name "spotted fever" arose. 

Early in the '60's the medical profession in the west was just beginning to 
accept the now universal belief that all disease should be treated on general 
medical principles. This was in opposition to the then quite prevalent prac- 
tice of having a remedy or a set of remedies for each individual disease. This 
principle of treating conditions rather than names was applied to the cases in 
the epidemic in Grinnell, and although a correct diagnosis was not made un- 
til after several cases of the fever had occurred, still the patients fared about 
as well before their disease was christened "spotted fever" as they did after- 
wards. Dr. E. H. Harris deserves a great deal of credit for his advanced con- 
victi(ms on this subject and his ciuiiage m putting them into practice. His 
views were quite at variance with the theories as taught then, but the infalli- 
ble test of time has shown that he had apprehended the truth. 

The first case of cerebro-spinal fever in Grinnell was that of Rollin W. 
Ford in March, 1862. He was taken suddenly with chills, followed by fever 
and severe pain in the head, neck and back.* The muscles were sore and 
stifl', and finally became so rigid that in lifting him out of the bed on to his 
feet the hip and knee joints did not bend in the least. There was complete 
loss of voice and ability to swallow, due to the tonic contraction of the mus- 
cles of the throat. Dr. Harris called Dr. Holyoke and Dr. Sears of Brooklyn 
in consultation in this case. Rollin died on or about the ninth day of his 

The next case occurred in April in the person of Mrs. Norman Whitney. 
Her illness was ushered in with chills, fever and severe pain in the head with 
great restlessness and nausea, but entire freedom from muscular stillness. 
Mrs. Whitney was living at that time in the first house south of Woodward's, 
near the corner of Spring street and 5th avenue. Mrs. Theodore Worthing- 

*Mr. C. W. E. Hard says he becaiiiu "almost delirlouH." 




ton hastened to tender her services and found Mrs. Whitney rollinj^ and toss- 
ing on tlie bed, wild and crazy and in such a condition that no medicine or 
nourishment could be administered to her. Drs. Harris and Holyoi<e, and Dr. 
\Vm. Patton ot Jasper county were in attendance and it is safe to say that she 
was not deprived of anythintj that medical skill could furnish at that time. 
Shortly after Mrs. Whitney was taken sick a younj^ lady named Melvina 
Sears, 14 or i5 years of age, who was living with Mrs. Whitney, was attacked 
suddenly. She was at once removed to the home of Fred Taylor in the old 
Gilmore house, and was attended by Drs. Harris, Holyoke and Patton. Mrs. 
Whitney died April 27th and Miss Sears on the following Sunday evening. 
Both these cases were acc(jrded a public funeral in the Congregational 
church, the funerals occurring toi^elher. Mrs. Worthington remembers dis- 
tinctly that tlie body ol Miss Sears turned absolutely black. She thinks that 
up to this time the doctors had not decided that the disease was spotted fever, 
otherwise no public funeral would have been allowed. Drs. Harris and 
Holyoke held a post mortem examination on the body of Miss Sears on Alon- 
day morning. At Ihis examination Dr. Pulsiter, a dentist, was present at his 
own request. Nothing oi any importance was discovered at the autopsy. 
The biain and spinal cord were not exposed, suitable instruments for the 
purpose not being available. Mrs. Dr. flarris at this time sick of this 
di'^ease in a mild form. Dr. Harris' mother had the care of her and the in- 
slructivMis weie to keep her quiet ami the room ilarkened. On the next day 
alter llie aulopsv on Miss Sears (.ruesday), Di'. Harris entered Dr. Holyokc's 
drug store, which stood where V. Cj. Preston's clothing store is now situated. 
It was between 3 and 4 in the afternoon. Dr. Pulsifer and others were in 
the store engaged in a heated political discussion. Having finished his errand 
Dr. Harris at once left for home. He had been in the house but a few min- 
utes when there was a rap at the door. Dr. t\ilsifer was standing there. Dr. 
Pulsifer said: "Doctor, 1 am sick." Dr. Harris urged him to go to his room 
at the hotel and promised to come and attend him at once. But Dr. Pulsifer, 
without ceremony, crowded past him, sat down in the first chair and began 
to chill and shake violently. Mrs. Harris was sick in the next room and fear- 
ing for her salety Dr. Harris thought that the best way out of the difliculty 
would be to get Dr. Pulsifer up stairs, which he did at once. He was put to 
bed and Dr. Harris remained with him until he appeared more comfortable. 
After supper that evening (Tuesday) Dr. Harris made a call on High streeet 
and Ol! returning to town he stopped a few moments by a window of the 
church and stood listening t(; the proceedings of the local Congregational 
Association, then in session here. "While thus engaged," says Dr. Harris, "I 

(46) • 

was called to the house of a family named Schoonover at the north end of 
the church lot. 1 found Mrs. S. apparently in her usual health, ironing 
clothes. Her little boy, eight or nine years of age, lay on a bed (»n the Hoor. 
At the time 1 was there he was having some fever. It was not high. Mrs S. 
did what she was instructed to do for the child and had returned to her 
ironing when I left. There was not a word of complaint in regard to herself. 
On reaching home I found Dr. Pulsifer asleep. On entering his room with a 
light he immediately awoke and sat up in bed. His pulse was soft and regu- 
lar, skin moist. He was free from headache and looked bright. He said he 
was feeling much better, He referred to the political discussion in the after- 
noon and was inclined to resume it. He then asked for a pitcher of water, 
and taking a drink, bade me good-night. The next morning at 5 o'clock 1 
was called to go to Schoonover's. 1 found the child in a comatose condition. 
The mother was on a bed near by pulseless, skin cold and clammy, the 
"spots" all over face and body. Dr. Holyoke was at once ^ent for and we 
did what we could. The child died about 8 o'clock and the mother about 9. 
I had been at Schoonover's but a short time when I felt impelled to return 
home and see Dr. Pulsifer. I found him in a semi-unconscious condition. 
He gradually grew worse and died about noon. He was about thirty-five 
years of age. The news of these cases spread rapidly. The next morning 
physicians arrived from Newton, ^\onte/uma and Brooklyn. 1 met them at 
the hotel. While there 1 received a message from Dr. Holyoke to come at 
once to the home of Mr. Dickey. The visiting doctors accompanied me. We 
found Mr. Dickey — who had been seen on the streets that morning--in a con- 
vulsion, breathing heavily and frothing at the mouth. He died about eleven 
o'clock that morning.* 

None of the cases after Miss Sears were given a funeral. The bodies were 
buried as soon as the graves and coflin could be gotten ready. Mr. Wm. 
Reynolds dug the graves fur all the victims of this epidemic, tor which work 
it may be said, he has not as yet received any compensation. 

Now let us turn to another case which is the more inviting because this 
life was spared for a long and useful ministry In this and other communities. 
Fortunately we have the recollections of the case of Mrs. Parker in Prof. L. F. 
Parker's own words, as follows: "During the night after the burial of Dr. 
Pulsifer my wife was wakened by her babe. She raised herself upon her elbow, 
but was unable to remain there. A slight chill and a trembling which in- 

♦Mr. C. W. E. llurd says: "As I was atandiiiK iii a store one aftcrnoou witli Lilbrid^'e 
Dickey some one announced Dr. Pulsifer is dead. KIbridge went lioiuo and was buried 
at 4 I'. M. the next day." 





creased rapidly forced her to lie down at once. We instantly suspected it 
was an attack of the deadly fever. Fortunately 1 had just learned that it was 
necessary at the outset to keep the blood circulating at the surface of the 
body and at the extremities. That day I had been told that Church Meigs of 
Malcom had had some experience with that disease in New England, and the 
best thing done there was to pile ears of corn just out of boiling water around 
the person, and thus arrest the chill and excite perspiration. We had no such 
corn. I kindled a quick ilre and as soon as the stove wood was well coaled 
I took the sticks, wrapped them in wet woolens and piled them around Mrs. 
Parker, giving her a vigorous steaming. She was quickly quite comfortable, 
though strangely weak, 1 then hastened to Dr. Holyoke's. He said I had 
done the best thing possible, and, as he was almost exhausted, he gave me 
brandy and quinine for her, and delayed his call till morning. My wife was 
unable to sit up for two days and then finally recovered through a kind of 
nervous prostration for some six months. This was an experience without 
an approach to a parallel in her history; — so free from pain and yet so pow- 

It is only just to add to what Prof. Parker has said that it was beyond 
doubt his quick foresight and prompt action which saved this invaluable life. 
Perhaps, also, the information he had received that very day was not after all 
a coiiuidence, but what we are accustomed to call one of the mysterious dis- 
pensations of Providence. 

Now let us resume the narrative of [Jr. Harris in his own words: "Dr. Wm. 
Patton, who lived in Jasper county, near where Kellogg now stands, died 
also of this disease, and his memory is worthy of more than a passing notice. 
As already stated. Dr. Patton was in Grinnell several times in consultation. 
But after the death of the Schoonovers and Dr. Pulsifer, Dr. Patton came to 
Grinnell and remained ten days without returning home. Dr, Holyoke was 
not in good health and asked to be relieved from attendance on severe and 
trying cases as well as ail night work. Besides Dr. Holyoke I was the only 
resident physician in Grinnell at that time. The sickness was so extensive 
that it was impossible for one physician to attend to all and do them justice. 
Under these circumstances Dr. Patton volunteered to leave home, family and 
practice and come to Grinnell and take his chances with the rest of us. He 
did his lull share of the work. On the evening of the lOth day he called at 
my du(u . 1 asked him to come in and tarry for the night. He said: 'No, 
I am vn y tired and almost sick. I shall go to the hotel and ask not to be 
disturlH'd until morning.' The next morning (Sunday) about dawn, he was 
again at my door, A messenger had come for him to go home - his daugh- 




ter was sick. 'You must look after my patients,' he said, 'unli! I return. I 
shall be back Monday morninJ^^' Monday niorniiii^ canie and 1 was called to 
the home of John fliatt on Rock Creek to see his wife. This was in the 
neiy;hborhood of FJr. Patton's home practice, and the messen^^er said that Dr. 
Patton had been sent for also. Soon after arrivini^ at Mr. Iliatt's the messen- 
jier returned and said that Dr. Patton was sick and had sent to Newton for 
his brother, Dr. Andrew Pattun. The next i)u>rnin,i^ (Tuesday) on arriving at 
the home of Mr. Iliatt 1 learned that Dr. Patton had died during the night. 
His remains were laid to rest the same afternoon in Hazel wood cemetery. 
Within a few weeks his oldst son, J. Milton Patton, died of the same disease, 
and his remains were placed beside his father's. I3r. Patton's heroic and un- 
tiring services during these trying times for which he received no compensa- 
tion and which doubtless cost him his life, are worthy of a tribute of praise 
and respect to which I feel my inability to do justice. Dr. Patton defrayed 
his own expenses during his ten days arduous sojourn in Grinnell. A mon- 
ument should be erected to his memory." 

Of the other fatal cases are to be inentioned Mrs. John M. Carson, who 
lived four miles northwest of town, a yt)ung son of O. B. Watrous and a man 
named Cobert. Of these cases 1 can lind no particulars. 

About a week alter A\rs. Whitney's dc-ath, Florence Worthington was taken 
sick with the lever. iMrs. Wvu IhingtvMi had been in frequent attendance on 
A\is. W hitney .md blorence had also been there. Florence was. sick in bed 
about a week. She had the characteristic '-spots." She linallv recovered 
with the loss of one eye, but her death some years ago was said to be ultim- 
ately due to the efTects of the fever in '62. 

We can not now note the cases of others who had the spotted fever in 
March or April of 1862 and recovered. They were not so serious as those 
already reported. 

IV. The Many' Lettered Peirces Near Grinnell Before 1870, 

[By L. G. C. Peirce, Esq., Grinnell.] 

One of the first known "Pierses" in history is Piers de Gaveston, a favorite 
of Edward 11 of lingland, known as the "notorious favorite." l-or his popu- 
laiitv he was beheaded by his enemies in 1.31.3. 

I'ctcr Peirs, who lived in the reigns of Ifdward IV and Richard 111, was the 
standard-bearer of the Royal Army, antl fought at Liosworth Tiekl, M.S3. 

John Piers was Archbishop of York in 1589. 

Captain William Pierse was commander of the Mayllower and settled- in 


j (49) 

! this country in 1629. He made the first ahnanac in America in 1639. He 
commanded an expedition against the Baliamas, and fell in the Island of 
Providence in l64l. 
The first patent of Plymouth Colony was granted to a ship owner, John 

i Peirce, l62l. 

I The first newspaper printed in America was published by Richard Pierce in 

' Boston, September 25, i699. 

Michael Pierce was a captain under Miles Standish. A great calamity befell 
Plymouth Colony during King Philip's war. He and his men were surrounded 
near Pawtucket by the whole Narragansett tribe and destroyed, after destroy- 
ing three times their own number, one of the bravest battles ever fought. 

The Pearces of this locality who spell their name "Peirce" or "Pierce" are 
direct descendants of one Thomas Peirce, who came from England in 1633 
with his wife, Elizabeth, and settled in Charleston, Mass. In his will (written 
at the age of 82 years) he gave to Harvard College 20 shillings. Although 
this amount seems small, yet, when we consider the times, the scarcity of 
money and the low price of property then, it was a large contribution. 
.Many of his descendants have graduated from that college. A nephew of the 
writer of this article, Prof. E. L. Mark, a graduate of Harvard, has been for 
twenty years a Professor of Zoolc\gy there. Prof. Peirce, also of Harvard, 
the greatest mathematician America has ever produced, is also a direct de- 
scendant of lliis Thomas, as was ex-l'resident Franklin Pierce, who was a son 
of Gov. Benjamin Pieice of New ll.impshire. 


Peter. S. Pearce located in the timber on section 32, township 80, range l6, 
four miles southwest of Grinneil, in 1845. He lived on this farm till he died, 
April i6, 1887. He was buried on the same farm. 

He was the son of George and Catharine Simmerman Pearce and was born 
in Ohio, March 20, 1809. He was married to Margaret Prosser November 30, 
1833. A daughter was born to them March 10, 1835, and a son November 
11, 1836, in Ohio. A son, Cyrenus William, was born to them in Indiana, 
March 22, 1839. Another son, Isaac N., was born November 28, 1844, in 
Illinois. This son died in Iowa. 

Peter S. Pearce told the writer of this article that one winter of his early set- 
tlenieiil in Iowa, snow was so deep and a crust so thick that travel by oxen 
(the only way of conveyance) was impossible. The few settlers near him 
were all out of flour and meal. Mr. Pearce rigged a pair of snow shoes and 
taking about 40 pounds of corn on his back, walked to Lynnville, got the 



corn ground, and returned with the meal about dark. This meal was divided 
among- four families the same evening. 

Mr. Pearce's early education was badly neglected, there being no school 
near where he was born. At the time of his marriage he could neither read 
nor write. He was taught both by his wife. He was a man of good judgment 
and of good business ability. He was the liist Justice of the Heace in Sugar 
Creek township in 1849, when it embraced a strip of the county nine miles 
wide across the west end. He held that ofiice several years. Lawyers say 
that in appeal cases from his court the rulings and decisions were nearly 
always sustained by the higher Court. 


Cyrenus William Pearce came to Iowa with his parents in i845, when about 
six years old. He was married on the 12th of January, l8G4, to Matilda G. 
Brown, daughter of John Brown. They, with their sons and daughters, now 
live on the farm first taken up by Peter S. Pearce. Mr. and Mrs. Pearce are 
spending the winter in California. They have three sons and two daughters. 


Isaac Pearce, a brother of Peter S. Pearce, came to Iowa in 1847 and located 
on a farm smith of that of his brother, (section 5, township 79, range 16). 
lie was mat lied to Alai gaiel I'airclolh In 1S59. A son, A. J. Pearce, was born 
to then! April l6, 1870. He is a resident of this city, being at present in the 
hardware store of G. L. Miles. The two daughters of Isaac are both dead. 
A son, George W., is farming near Grinnell. 


S. R. Pearse came to Grinnell in 1872. He kept a book store on Broad 
Street. He resided here about two years. Once, while on his way from 
Montezuma to Grinnell, he became lost on the prairies in a blinding snow 
storm. The writer of this article had the pleasure of getting him on the right 
track for home. 

Airs. Sarah C. (L. F.) Parker, his sister, is too well known to this associa- 
tion to require extended notice. 


Y' G. C. Peirce* came to Grinnell in December, 1862, coming from Tama, 

*Mi. Peircc's sister ^ives the iiiiincs of his Aincric;ui ancestry; " J'liomiiM, Thomas, ' 
'J'li(;iu;i;-i, Sctii, Si;lh. (iiiiMoi). Au.liii" Ol Hicir l.illii.T, Aiisliii, i,Ih;s;i\h: "IK; was a 
man uiiC(jiimmii iihilily, lun'iy.y ami (on r. i.l ( ra( My |ju..l/.iiiM H.r,'.i 1h; hail m<»r<; 
Lraiiib tlian all the rest ul thu town i^iit lur.«;llii;r." Tin; mother, loo.seeiu;. to have he(;ii 
a SOI t of "factutum" amoii|„' the VMancu as the lather was amuii^ the men, hoth (loiu({ 
evcrytliiug helpful in their pioneer commiiiiily. 


the western terminus of the North Western railway, by stage. This was be- 
fore the Rock Island railway had reached Grinnell. His wife and two boys 
joined hini in the spring of 1863. He improvc'd a farm out on the prairie 
where neither neighbors, pigs nor chickens were any bother. When he first 
located on tlie prairie farm, from his house one could look in all directions 
and see only the green grass below and the blue sky above. 

L. G. C. Peirce was born in Villenova, Chautauqua county, New York, 
February 5, 1836. He came to Kane county, Illinois, in May, 1853. Of the 
ten years he lived in Illinois, between three and four were spent in a store. 
The remainder of the time he worked on a farm. He was married to Esther 
M. Snow, September 27, 1860. Since coming to Iowa he has spent 25 years 
on a farm and nearly .twelve years in the city. He has held the ofhce of 
Justice of the Peace, assessor of the township, and of township trustee. He 
was manager of the Grinnell creamery three years. For more than twenty 
years he has been secretary of the Poweshiek County Farmers' Mutual Insur- 
ance Company, a company that has saved to its members thousands of dol- 
lars in cheap and safe insurance. 

All of Mr. Peirce's brothers, some of his uncles and his grandfather have 
military records. One uncle was killed at the battle of Buena Vista in the 
war with Mexico. 

One brother was killed in the war for the Union, while in command of a 
brigade at (A)ld Harbor. Another brother, a graduate of West Point and a 
lieutenant in the regular army, died of fever in Texas. Another brother was 
in the Union army from the battle of Pea fridge, with Sigel, to the marching 
down to the sea with Sherman, and is spending this winter in Cuba for his 
health and to locate his sons on farms there. Another brother was in the 
battle of Gettysburg as a captain of a company of the New York militia. 
L. G. C. Peirce was in the Sugar Creek war under the command of Capt. S. J. 
Buck and Lieut. L. F. Parker. 


Jacob G. Pierce came to Grinnell in the spring of 1868. He lived on a farm 
one mile north of town, on the Chester road, fie was born in Connecticut 
December 8, 1806. He was married twice, the second wife being Emily S. 
Hall, to whom he was married May 6, 1845. Mr. and Mrs, Pierce are both 
dead. A daughter, Alice Pierce Kasson, born September, 1855, is now living 
at Mont(.'/uma. 



The Eighth Annual Meeting, \90U 

/. Extract from the President's Opening Address, 

We celebrate our eighth anniversary today (May 17). Fourteen months 
have elapsed since we last met, rather than twelve, since May is more favor- 
able for our meeting than March. 

Many of those who came here in the '50s, and some of those who came 
later, have written of the incidents of their coming and their pioneer experi- 
ences for our meetings. The laying of the corner stone of the Stewart 
Library has reminded us of the value of these contributions to the early 
history of our town. The historian of the future who shall seek facts at first 
hand concerning the beginnings of Grinnell v/ill lind in that stone the papers 
read before our association at our three earliest meetings. By that time our 
records may have perished from the knov^'ledge of our children and from 
the shelves of our libraries, but there the coming man who shall live to see 
that copper treasure-box taken from its granite case will catch glimpses of 
our pioneer environments, as he reads the very wt)rds of Madames Grinnell, 
Hamlin, Pheljvs, Scott, Sherman, Hag^s aiui I'arlin, and of Miss Mary Harks; 
and those of such men as Harvey Bliss, T. 11. Bixby, A. F. Gillett, S. H. Her- 
rick, E. S. Bartlett, F. W. Porter and Erastus Snow. We regret that the papers 
read at our next four meetings had not been put into pamphlet form, and so 
could not find a place in that receptacle. 

We now hope that the historic materials in the records of our proceedings 
may be printed soon enough to be preserved in the corner stone of the High 
School building, which must be erected at no distant day. We are inclined 
to believe that our town is the best one in this best state of the nation. Its 
first days may not have been its best days, nevertheless they were superbly 
good and grandly formative. Men and women came here with high pur- 
pose ; they made heroic efTorts; they achieved important success. They 
alone can know or record all. Peripatetic penny-a-liners, venal writers of 
historic fictions may make our history a caricature by interweaving a single 
fact with a dozen fancies so deftly that fact and fancy can never again be 

Then, too, the papers read before us, belter than any assertions, demon- 
strate the fact that Grinnell was settled by literary people, by those who 
loved learning and were able to use clear, graceful speech. But they are 


leaving us with painful rapidity. We must embalm their words in print, and 
very soon, or lose them beyond all recovery. 

It is especially desirable to record all the most helpful influences of the 
town, all that were intended to make it morally or intellectually better. 
Some of these are not so easily recalled. Children then could remember a 
fire, a thunderstorm or a rain which moistened the minister's sermon, who 
could not remember that it was sleepily dry (but sermons by residents were 
not of this sort) before it became amusinj^ly wet. These clearer children's 
memories are welcome, but they are not the most important. 

One of our most helpful institutions was the Lyceum, which drew Grinnell 
pioneers within speaking distance occasionally during our earliest winters. 
We met once in two weeks or so to discuss any and every topic of general 
interest, whether local or national, moral, intellectual or religious. We had 
a large proportion of thinkers and speakers, an unusually large number of 
graduates from colleges and from the higher schools, probably larger than 
had old Boston or Eastern Massachusetts or any other town in this state, and 
yet that large proportion in Massachusetts has been the object of highest 
eulogy by gratified historians. For such a community the period from 1854 
to i860 abounded in questions which wrought minds up to a white heat. 
During that time Iowa supplanted the rate bill by the free-school system; 
the quesiion u( lemperance was tiiorouglily alive, and "Bleeding Kansas" 
was especially exciting, for personal acquaintances were in the thick of the 
tight there, and John Brown came here with slaves emancipated by the death 
of the master. That, too, was the time when we lacked little of having a 
mob even in Grinnell because colored boys were in the public school. You 
will pardon me, 1 am sure, if 1 mention a personal incident which illustrates 
the influence of those meetings in bringing us into very hearty co-operation. 

Oberlin was then near the height of its unpopularity. Its graduates were 
under suspicion as dangerous radicals. Again and again it seemed to. be 
enough for some to settle a question in the negative if Oberlin was supposed 
to favor it. On one occasion during my first winter here a debater intimated 
that a thought expressed by myself was what should be expected from an 
Oberlinite, it was so obviously unreasonable. In reply I begged indulgence 
in making a specific reply to those slighting allusions which had been 
expressed repeatedly. 1 employed the ''/it^umentum ad honiinm," saying: 
"It has been a problem whether we should settle here. We incline more and 
more to do so, because: 

1. Grinnell is eminently interested in education, just like Oberlin. 

2. It is emphatically a temperance town. So is Oberlin. 


3. It is clear-cut in its opposition to slavery. Like Oberlin again, 

4. It is a place of rare averai^e intelligence. A second Oberlin. 

5. Religion is a living force in the community, as it is at Oberlin. 

On the whole, then, we think we can do no better than to stick here where 
people are such well-defined Oberlinites." 

The reply seemed satisfactory. It is certain that agreement with Oberlin 
was never offered again as a rebuttal to any argument. 

Thus that Lyceum opened the doors into the deeper recesses of our minds. 
We could see topics of interest as others saw them. We sometimes adopted 
the opinions of others, as they furnisiied us reasons not known before, and 
could always respect the view of a candid man even when we did not accept 
it. Surface differences were modified by our fundamental agreements. 

//. Our Tallest Pioneer, Levi H. l^iarsh. 

[By Miss Ella E. Marsh.] 
"John, John, Joseph, Jonathan, John, Abram." 

So runs the ancestral record from 1636, till we come to Levi, the subject 
of this sketch, who was born at Hartford, Vt., Jan. 7th, 1808, and died at 
Grinnell, Iowa, Mav 8th, l8S6. 

In the ri\'(ud IIkmo is mention iwade of Hraintree.; of llarltord, 
Conn., where the n.une of the first John is on a monument to the old 
settlers; of the wife of the fliird John, is an Adams of the President's family. 

This man, the grandfather of Levi Marsh, cleared a farm on .Quechee river 
in Vermont about 1760. His son Abram lived on this farm. Dying at forty- 
five, he left a widow with eight children, Levi, my father, being but nine 
months old. 

On his mother's side he was of Scotch descent. This widow assumed her 
double duties with faith and courage. She gave her children vigorous Chris- 
tian training, and by common consent, "no farm in the town was better 
managed." The oldest son, Hammon — father of our Mrs. Bosworth — 
eleven years old when his father died, was as a right-hand man to his 

Levi received the education of the common school and a term at Thetford 
Acatiomy, and settling on the farm, lived there till he was past forty. 

Tor a time he shared the care of it with his brother llammon; later, he 
bought his interest in it, leaving Hammon free to go West, and in a few years 
he was one of the pioneers of Southern Wisconsin. 

At twenty-six Levi married Mary Cooper, of Alsted, New Hampshire. 


Consumption claimed the wife in a few years. She left two children, Ellen 
— now Mrs. Chipp, whose home is with her son, Dr. Clapp, of North Graf- 
ton, Mass. — and Mary, who died in infancy. 

During three years following this bereavement he traveled, buying wool 
for a manufacturer at Queechee, and came as far West as Wisconsin. He 
entered land there in 1839. 

In 1.S42 he marrii.-d l:dith Hall, of Springfield, Vt., and again took posses- 
sion of the homestead. 

Removing to Sharon, Vt., about 1850, he carried on an extensive business, 
made unfortunate investments, lost, and when the debts were paid and the 
family started West to begin life over again they had little more than $300, 
but they had C(jurage and credit and hojie and large plans for the education 
of the children and for Christian work. 

They reached the home of llammon Marsh, in Wisconsin, in May, 1852. 
The father prospected in Eastern Iowa and Northern Illinois, and returned to 
locate near Bristol, but he was never contented there. 

In February, 1851, the two Mr. Marshes, with their wives, were visiting at 
Mr. L. C. Phelps's, a few miles away. Here they learned of the plan of a 
Rev. J. B. Grinnell to plant a Christian colony in Central Iowa. Always a 
Providence man, Levi Marsh thought this a "special," and said at once : "1 
shall go there." "Pei haps you will," said his less impulsive bi other. " You've 
wandered about a ijood deal. We'll see." 

In AV.uch (Mr. Hammon Alarsh, with Mr. Phelps, came. Mr. Marsh showed 
his estimate of the country by buying land — in all about some 400 acres — 
and returned home. In May he came again with his brother Levi, Rev. Mr. 
Tenney and Silas Brande. 

To see was to be captivated, and my father began at once to plan for a 
home here. He started a home, laying two sills, each 36 feet long, and put- 
ting a 14-foot square frame on the east end of them. 

He entered with zest into every part of the community life. 

Away from his family three months, he returned ill, having been brought 
low by the cholera, which was raging along the Mississippi. 

Disposing of his farm, he started back with his family in an emigrant 
wagon, late in September. About noon Friday, Oct. 6lh, 1854, the little 
setllomiMit appeared to view. An lu)ur later we drove up to the Long Home. 
A pleasant welcome was given to the newcomers. While the older people 
spoke Uu'ir greetimjs, the Phelps boys were sturdily ringing the bell which 
stood (/II Ihe j^rouiitl. One simple child in the wagon asked il they were 
going to have meeting here on Friday. 


We moved four times during the first three weeks of our stay, then, our 
own house being enclosed, we took possession. It was a unique, valuable 
shanty. One thousand feet of planed pine boards, costing $60, covered only 
three sides of it. No more were to be had, so some slabs were secured from 
the saw-mill to cover the front, and a bedquilt served as door. The roof 
was of Byzantine style ; the long boards arching over were covered with 
tarred paper. Winter winds were hard on it; spring rains soaked it. How 
the water came throughl But our enterprising mother, equal to this, as well 
as to the many other emergencies of her life, found a way to protect her 
children from the droppings, which often became streams. Awake, they 
could dodge them; if asleep, shallow tin pans, relics of the Vermont dairy 
farm, set about over the beds on the floor, were sure shelters, if not overfilled 
or overturned by restless sleepers. But woe to the child who did roll over! 
As surely as gravitation acts, he got a wetting. 

Life must have been monotonous that first winter, but little things were of 
interest, especially to the children. The potatoes which my father, always a 
liberal provider, bought soon after his arrival for himself and others, were 
stored in his cellar. "Where was that?" A hole in the ground under the 
center of the house. "Where was the entrance to it?" The floor of the house 
was of full length, 18 inches wide boards. The middle one was not nailed, 
and it was easy to move e\erything from it, think it a ti.ip-door, set it on 
cdiLie .iiul let .1 boy diop down between the boards to get tlieiu when AU. 
Giinnell, A\r. Scott or ^\^^. Whitcomb came or sent for potatoes. How we 
looked for such episodes as the days went byl As a family, we had been 
liberally supplied with books by an Eastern Sunday school. 

Their prairie dwelling often served as a hotel and restaurant to Eastern 
gentlemen who were in search of homes. 

For the next five years additions were made to it, till, through the stages 
of irregular rectangle and flat roof, it emerged a 36-foot-square, gable-end, 
two-and-one-half-story house. It furnished a home for many students in 
the early day s, and was often used "as a station on the undergrou nd railroad. 
Those were times of suppressed excitement. 

Later, when the provost marshal's office was located here, it must be had 
for a boarding-house for recruits, since it " was the largest private house in 
the town." "1 don't wish to keep them," said our mother; "but if the 
house is to he used, I will use it." And more than eighty men at once were 
fed three times a day and lodged in it. 

Very domestic, very industrious, even-tempered and strong in faith, our 
mother faced each experience as it came, and so she gave courage and 
strength to many another. 



The Marshes have been known in all places as sober, very industrious, 
public spirited and sometimes over-sanguine, The latter trait has led, some- 
times, to investments, where j^reater cautiuji would have held back. 

There was much to occupy my lather's hand and brain in this new coun- 
try, it was a pleasure to break these fertile prairies, where'lhere was never 
a stone to dull the plow. With many men and ox teams, and a movable 
shanty, he conducted this work during the season, overturning hundreds of 
acres of this virgin soil. He planted miles of black locust hedge, one ten- 
acre piece of the same, besides many acres of other kinds of trees. 

Suffering with his feet from early manhood, and enjoying the cooHng 
touch of earth's humid soils, tall, strong in arms, ready to do the needed 
thing and the thing that paid, he dug many wells, sometimes digging down 
and stoning up without making an exit. 

As the Rock Island Railroad crept westward he found it profitable to meet 
it at its nearer terminus and to deal in lumber, putting up rude structures to 
be used for homes and business. He built the first grain warehouse in this 
city and several small dwellings. And he was always a farmer, a lover of the 

In 1865 he took the contract for building a Ladies' Bc)a'rding Hall for the 
College. It was a costly job. He tried to make it a worthy one. Could 
the ^leat S(»liil stones of the foundation have spoken, as the superstructure 
was lemoved last .year, Ihey mit'ht tell ol mighty blastings at the quarry and 
vi (heir sl(.)w nu)ving on wagons or stone-boats across the country, to be 
laid into something lit to build that Ladies' Hall upon. When settlement was 
made, there seemed to be a thousand dollars lacking. 

Having taken a contract for grading a mile on the L C. R. R., he finished 
the work so well that the profits were on the wrong side of the ledger. A 
similar result had been attained by a contract on the Vt. Central yeai s before. 

Scrupulously honest, ever sanguine, with a strong love for trade and the 
stir of active life, he recovered some losses by persistent hard work. If he 
lacked money, he had faith in God, faith in the founder of the town, and 
willingness to build himself into an idea! Christian community and all moral 
reforms. Having been a teetotaller in Vermont and paying one dollar a 
month, extra, to his hiretl men in jilace <»! providing them with rum, as was 
the custom, lie brought to this land the hatred of the stulf" which had been 
liis honor Hu re; and he added to it a hatred, which was intensified as age in- 
creased, ol tobacco in all its forms. In season and out of season, in public 
and privaU' he set forth its evils. Saitl one, after his body was laid to rest, 
"He always would tell too much truth." "He was twenty-five years ahead of 
the times." 


Of their children, Edna, George D., Charles and Ella were born at Que- 
chee, yVnna at Sharon, Hammond in Grinnell. 

Anna died in Wisconsin when less than ten months old. 

Edna grew to womanhood in Grinnell. was a teacher for a tew years, and 
in 1867 was married to George H. Buck, a native of Conn. They now reside 
in the Ozark region of Arkansas. Her family and neighbors call her blessed. 

George graduated from Iowa College and Chicago Theological Seminary, 
and has been a missionary of the American Board in European Turkey and 
Bulgaria since 1872. He was married in 1875 to Ursula Clarke, a native of 
Mass. They have greatly endeared themselves to the people, through 25 
years of work for and with them. 

Charles is a hard-working stock raiser and farmer. He now lives five 
miles southwest of this city. His wife was Melinda Decatur, a native of New 

Ella,* a teacher for many years, now lives in the city with her mother. 

Hammond has been a Congregational pastor for fifteen years. "Ready 
every time for everything we put upon him," is the verdict of a brother 
clergymen, intimately associated with him. He is now located in Kansas. 
His wife was Mary Robinson, a native of Illinois. 

Happy in her friends, her chldren, her hopes, our mother, a placid saint in 
her 8oth year, abides in the home she has so long blessed. 

///. The Grinnell Methodist Church. 

[A Brief Sketch, by Rev. W. P. Stoddard.] 

The Grinnell Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in 1859 with ten 
members, as follows: Nathaniel Ellis and wife, Wm. Sargent and wife, A. P. 
Cook and wife, Jane Black and Joseph Ellis. This class was connected with 
the Peoria Circuit, with Abner Orr as pastor. Of these ten A. P. Cook is the 
only surviving member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The first services were held in private families and school houses, but in 
1863-4, during the pastorate of George Clamnu-r, a little house was bought, 
standing then on the southwest corner of Main street and Fourth Avenue. 
The price paid was $700. Father Cook's words are here appropriate: "But 
wlu'ie was the $700} We decided to raise half of it in cash and give a mort- 
f(.r the rest. Then the lug of war began. We were all jioor, so that we 
were (W)liged to deny ourselves of many things, biit we were determined to 

*This paper aliowa her grace and xinoT of thought and speech. 


win. A subscription paper was circulated all over town and only about 
^125.00 secured. When I came up to town and saw the brethren, they were 
discouraged. 1 told them they had not half tried. I met J. B. Grinnell and 
added )?35.00. So, for a time 1 worked and had on my list )^2ll.00 and the 
day was saved. Then we made seats, pulpit and platform, papered the room 
and painted it until we had a very convenient little church in which to 

Here for four years church services were held and the work prospered. 
Then it was found necessary to enlarge. It was during the pastorate of 
Dennis Murphy that a lot was secured on the Corner of Park street and Fifth 
avenue for the new building. The history of this purchase, the difficulties 
found in securing the location, the obstacles placed in the way by others, the 
assistance of Jas. Harlan in the result, and the opposition to the settlement 
and services, would make an interesting chapter. 

However, on this lot in, 1867, a neat frame building, seating some four 
hundred, was erected. 

Up to this time the following brethren had served as pastors; 1859, Abner 
Orr; 1860, P. F. Brisee; l86l, C. J. Jennis; 1862, J. H. Lucas; 1863-4, George 
Clammer; 1865, J. D. Moore; 1866-8, Dennis Murphy. 

No other improvements are noted until the second pastorate of Brother 
Murphy, when the parsonage, now standing west of the church, was built. 
The church, meanwhile, had somewhat prospered, had received the faithful 
services of men who had strengthened the work and was ready for the fur- 
ther improvements inaugurated. 

During this period the following were pastors in charge: 1869, J. B. Hardy; 
1870-1, J. W. Chaliin; 1872-3, W. G. Wilson, during whose pastorate a debt 
of a thousand dollars was raised; 1874, L. P. Causey; 1875, J. W. Robinson; 
1876, J. C. Brown; 1877, E. L. Briggs; 1878-9, W. F. Cowles; 1880-3, Dennis 

The pastorates of all the brethren following were eminently successful in 
many ways and opened the way for the building of the present beautiful and 
modern structure in 1895-6. John Haynes had served for two years, 1884-5; 
T. B. Hughes for the pastoral limit of five years, 1885-90; M. S. Hughes, six 
months, and M. Bamford completing the year and serving three years and six 
months, until September, 1894; J. B. Hackley, 1894-6, during whose pastorate 
the church was built. 

The present beautiful stone church, modern in every respect, was com- 
pleted in 1896, at a cost of ;^26,000. It is built of Bedford stone, with Le 
Grand trimmings, is finished in solid oak, and in every respect a handsome 



and convenient edifice. It has an auditorium, chapel, library, hallways and 
five class rooms opening into the chapel — all on the ground floor, whose di- 
mensions over all are, length, 108 feet, and width 70 feet. Below are the 
kitchen, dining room, assembly room, toilet rooms, steam heating plant, — 
the whole lighted with electricity. 

This brings the history in essentials up to September, 1896. A few words 
only need be added. Brother Corley served the church from l896 to 1899, 
when the present pastor, Walter P. Stoddard, was appointed to the work. 
This sketch is writeen for the Old Settlers' record at the end of his second 
year, during which time two large ingatherings of converts have been made, 
the church debt, accumulating from interest and unpaid subscriptions, and 
amounting to six thousand dollars, has been paid, many repairs placed upon 
church and parsonage, amounting to about a thousand dollars, and the net 
gain in membership of l60 bring it at present tu 550. 

IV. Reminiscences of Mr. Merrltt. 

[By M. K. Ah;rritt. Esq.] 

It is a pleasure to be able to add even a little to the early reminiscences of 
A city like Urinnoll. and lo toll ot how, wIkmi aUvl wliy 1 located here. U 
was, 1 think, in the latter part of September, 1857, that I tirst stopped off for 
a visit with the brothers, J. W. and L. N. Sherman, who were old compan- 
ions in the gold mines of California and had located near here some two 
years previous. I left Iowa City in the afternoon and rode in a stage coach 
all night. The Western Stage Coach Company's old coaches were more re- 
markable for strength and durability than for beauty or comfort, and the 
drivers were not always able to keep in the middle of the road, for when we 
were coming through the timber, three miles east of Brooklyn, we came to a 
sudden stop. The passengers all got out, and upon close examination the 
coach was found to be on both sides of a stump. Whether it was owing to 
the double sight of the driver, caused by the absence of the prohibitory law, 
or the natural darkness of the night, 1 never found out; but we lifted the 
coach over the stump and came on with no more accidental stops. Soon 
alter sunrise we were a short distance west of Mr. \\ \\ Raymond's, and the 
siiiilighl rellected in the di.slance from a small cluster of houses, in Grinnell, 
eight miles away. 

In due time we arrived in Grinnell, the coach stopping at the Bailey House; 
afterwards it was called the Hawkeye House, more recently the North-West- 


ern, and lastly the Manitou House; and the site is soon to be occupied by a 
fine Opera House. Well, after partaking of a ^ood square meal, I inquired 
for a barber and was told that every man shaved himself and did not attempt 
to shave others. That, 1 thought, was a good financial recommendation, 
but when I tried to hire a man to take me up to J. W. Sherman's, five miles 
out on the prairie, and he named the price, 1 thought, after all, perhaps I had 
found the man who did the shaving. 

Work had been commenced on a building for a Ladies' Seminary, Iowa 
College not expected at that time. The foundation was about completed 
and ready for the brick work. It was on the floor of that foundation that I 
first met Hon. J. B. Grinnell. He seemed to take readily to those he wished 
to have locate here, and was very enthusiastic about the town and county. 
In fact, he appeared at that time to be the same energetic, genial, whole- 
souled man that years of acquaintance proved him to be. I also met Mr. 
Sutherland's people, who had formerly been residents of my native town in 
Vermont. After a stay of about two weeks I went to Monona County, 
where I had expected to locate, but after a stay of two months I returned 
again to Grinnell with a firm conviction that the country tributary to Grin- 
nell was second to none in Iowa; that the town was started on the right 
plan, with tlie right people to carry it out. Education, Religion, Morality 
and romiierance were the ioundatioivs, ami though the town was small, with 
the houses some distance apart, the people who occupied them were of a 
class that few new towns could boast, and it was evident that the increase of 
population would come largely from the same class, and time has proved 
that to be correct. The location of Iowa College was not thought of at this 
time. It was in April, 1858, that I saw Mr. Grinnell and I think Mr. Hamilton 
at Iowa City, they said on their way to Davenport to attend a meeting of the 
Trustees of Iowa College. Mr. Grinnell said there was a prospect of a re-lo- 
cation of this institution in the near future and he was going to present the 
claims of Grinnell for the new site, but he said it would take lots of work 
and considerable property inducements to get it, but if it could be done the 
prosperity and fame of Grinnell would be assured. The work was done, the 
funds were secured, and Iowa College was located at Grinnell, and the early 
.settlers who have known Mr. Grinnell through all these years of the upbuild- 
ing of the town and county have no doubts about his doing his share of the 
work, and his enthusiastic prophesies were no exaggerations. They are facts 
already passing into history, and the little cluster of houses occupied by 
those early settlers has been the nucieous around which has grown the hand- 
some city we see here to-day. And the principles underlying the foundation 


of Grinnell Colony are still the prominent features of the city and commu- 
nity, and I doubt not that it is the earnest desire of every member of this as- 
sociation that the work so well begun may still move on with increasing suc- 
cess in the upbuilding of Character, and that shall stand for Goodness, Purity 
and Temperance. 

V. Grivnell at the Age of Fifteen Months.* 

[By R. M. Kellogg. Esq.] 

June 19, 1855, 1 approached the hamlet of Grinnell from the south, having 
walked from Latimer's Grove, a stage station on the old state road. 

The first man 1 saw was Levi Marsh, As he rose to respond to my saluta- 
tion, he seemed to grow taller and taller till my astonishment was complete. 
He was six feet, seven inches, without his shoes. He directed me to the 
Lowry House. On the original town plat (a half mile square) there were six- 
teen houses at that time. Dr. Holyoke's, Rev. Mr. Hamlin's, Mr. Amos Bixby's 
and Mr. Gillett's biing just outside. 

Mr. Marsh's house was located on lot 12, block 11. It was about 14x24, 
and iS feet high. The roof made of bo.\rds, but was so as to be two feet 
hlgluT in liio ceiilcr than at the sides. Later it was supplemented by a cover- 
ing of tarred or oiled cloth, which was not a success. It was not unusual to 
see Mrs. Marsh sitting with her work with an umbrella fastened over her head 
in rainy weather. 

On lot six of the same block I saw the wrecked house of Deacon Abram 
Whitcomb, which a strong wind had blown from the posts upon which it 
had been placed, and from beneath the ruins Mrs. Whitcomb, Abbie and 
Helen had crawled. On lot 12, block i, stood the house of Wm. Leisure, 
built like Mr. Marsh's. Rev. Samuel Loomis' house, known as the double or 
twin house, was on lot 3, block 9. 

Mr. Phelps claimed to have the first plastered house in Grinnell and it was 
located on the corner where, on lot 2, block 18, the present location of the 
Merchants' National Bank. Across the park, on lot 3, block IS, Mr. Grinnell 
had commenced his house, only the back part enclosed. The frame of the 
front part was up but the wind had carried off the roof. 

The lii bl house buill on High street was built by Henry Hill on lot 12, block 
23, f(>ll' wecl soon after by James iiodurtlia on lot 11, block 24, the site of my 
present home. Be th houses were small. A small shanty stood on lot 11, 

♦Prepared in 1899. 


block 16, where Mr. Carlton made oak shingles. Lysander Howard lived in 
a dugout, on block 24, lot 10, but built a house soon after, which, with addi- 
tions, now stands in the alley between High and State streets. 

On lot 3, block 14, on the square set apart for a school house when the 
village was laid out, Mr. Grinnell built the first house for church and school. 

Its dimensions were 14x24 feet, 12 feet high, boarded up with green oak 
boards without battens, giving a chance for plenty of Ires'i air. At times the 
candles would be blown out by the wind coming through the cracks in meet- 
ing time. Miss Lucy Bixby, now Mrs. Marshall Bliss of L'enver, Colo., was 
the first teacher. The foundation walls of the first school house, built by 
taxation, were being laid. It was to be 40x40 feet, two stories high; fifty feet 
were added later. The present Center school building toe k its place in 1871. 
That year its second story was used for church services as well as for school. 
On the west side of Broad street on lot li, block 6, beiween 4th and 5th 
avenues, stood what will always be remembered as the "long home." It was 
about 14 feet wide and 80 feet long and 8 feet high, the roof covered with 
bent boards. Passing on to lot 3, block l5, they were building Deacon 
Bartlett's house. Mr. Emory Bartlett was at work on the roof. 

On lot 12, block 6, stood Mr. Anor Scott's store, a small building. On the 
same block, lot 3, Mr. Hayes lived, and on lot i. A\r. TluMnas had built a 
lunis{\ 1 Ml lot i;,, Ml. rii.unlH'is h.ul a small licuse, which is still standing. 

A\r. Cluimbers also buill the fii st lu>tel ;ind the m iginiil house, a part of the 
present A\anitou House, is still staiulinii:. Once the rooi was blown olT by a 
tornado, and twice it has narrowly escaped being burned. It was originally 
what was known as a "grout" house, i. e., stone and plastered on the outside. 

At the head of 4th avenue on East street. Dr. Holyoke built, his farm run- 
ning east. South of the plat were Deacon Bixby's and Mr. Gillett's. .Mr. 
Wm. Reynolds had a dugout south of Mr. Gillett's. 

The houses were nearly all built with oak frames, with inside finishing of 
black walnut or butternut, with oak shingles and often with only linn (bass- 
wood) clapboards on the outside, — rather cold in winter, but filled with 
cheery people hoping for better houses in time. All the pine lumber had to 
be hauled from Muscatine. There were two saw mills in operation — Capt. 
Clark's in the grove not far from Mr. Perry Matteson's, and the Bailey mill, a 
short distance west of the village. 

Each newcomer received such a cordial reception that lie could feel at once 
that he had found friends, and that here with all (he inconveniences and de- 
privations incident to a life in a new country, peo[)le seemeLl t(.> vie with each 
other in the effort to be, contented, and make the best of it lor the general 



The following is the list of the deaths of old settlers so far as the Commit- 
tee on Necrology (Mrs. Julia A. Grinnell, Mrs. Isabella Brande and Rev. Geo. 
M. Adams) have been able to ascertain: — 


Mary L.Williamson March 13 

Mrs. J. J. Hill April 

P. G. C. Merrill August 

Mary Little. 

Mrs. L. C. Fhelps Dec. 30 


Mrs. Samuel Loomis Feb. 3 

Mrs. Jane Carney January 

Mrs. A. P. Phillips.... January 

H. S. Marvin January 

Mrs. H. S. Marvin .January 

David Sutherland Feb. 19 

Edward Davis June l 

J. W. Derr July 19 

Mrs. Carmichael Sept. l6 

Rev. J. M. Ch.unberlain Nov. tl 

A\rs. Abby C. Lawrence Nov. 23 

^\^s. Matilda I'rosser Feb. S 


Mrs. Lila Truit Kessel Jan. 5 

Mrs. A. P. Cook Jan. 7 

Mrs. Lucretia Judkins Mar, 25 


J. B. Furber Jan. 14 

J. K. James Jan. 18 

Mrs. Ann S. Morrison Feb. 5 

Mrs. A. Carr Joy Feb. 17 

Joseph Hays Feb. 17 

Mrs. Wm. Hays Mar. 28 

A. L. Proctor Mar. 23 

J. W.Satchell April 18 

Rev. Thos. Brande May 26 

John Bnnvn June 9 

W. II. Harris June 22 

D. C. Baker. 
John Baker, 

Mrs. Wilbur F. Cardell. 

Thos. Shackley Sept. 6 

Mrs. E. Hibbard Sept. 7 

J. Barney Wallace Oct. 12 

Marshall Bliss (Boulder, Colo.) Dec. 23 
Mrs. Thomas Matteson. 


A. C. Newman Jan. 21 

Alonzo Steele Jan. 30 

Mrs. M. K. Merritt Feb. 8 

Mrs. Wm. Ralf. 
D. S. Mason. 
Ephraim Shields. 
Mrs. Geo. Brown. 

Mrs. Sara Dinsmore Mar. 28 

Nicholas Wiltamuth April 3 

Wilson Sherman April 9 

G. A\. C. Hatch April 10 

A\rs. Mary E. Bump April 26 

Mrs. L. F. Parker June 5 

Mrs. Horace Seaman June 13 

C. W. Walker June 25 

Mrs. J. K. James. July 10 

Ithamar C. Kellogg luly 11 

Mrs. Samuel Bucknam July 30 

Raymond M. Kellogg July 30 

Mrs. Jonathan Child Aug. 25 

Mrs. Darwin Forbes Aug. 29 

H. G. Little Nov. 3 

Mrs. Richard Whitney Oct. 22 

William LaGrange Dec. 1 

Q. A. Gilmore Dec. l3 


William Pexton Jan. 26 

Mrs. A. B. Car hart Feb. 21 

W. A. Propst March 6 

G. W. Chambers. 

Mrs. A. J. Larrabee March 26 

Mrs. Harvey Bliss April 14 




President L. F. Pakker, 1894- 

Harvey Bliss 
F. Wyatl . . 
A. Steele . . . 


. . 1894-95 S. J. Buck... 
..1895-96 R. M. Kelloj^i^ 
. . 1890-97 K. M. Haines. 

. . . .1897-98 


R. M. Keilogii 1894-95 Henry Sherman 1896-97 

Wilson Sherman 1895-96 A.Steele 1897-98 

H. H. Kobbins 1S99-. 

Sn l-I UKY AND TKI ASUKLK. S. H. HiMlii'k .1894-97 

D. S. Morrison 1897- 

ExrcuTiVE Committee.— Officers named above and D. S. Morrison, H. S. 
Bliss, Miss Flla E. Marsh, 1894-5; C. M. Black, A. C. Harriman and G. L. 
Bailey, 1895-6; S. J. Buck, Mrs. Kate Harriman, C. M. Black, 1896-7; Mrs. C. 
D. Kelsey, J. P. Lyman, Mrs. J. Baj^jjs, 1897-8; H. S. Bliss, Ella Marsh, H. C. 
Spencer, 1899-. 

ERRATUM —On page 48 it is said that Mr. Cobert died of the "spotted 
fever." Mr. C. N. Perry informs us that he did not die, but that Mr. C.'s son 
had the disease and became permanently deaf and dumb in consequence of it. 


}!!STORICA! '^rii DING 

; )" iOV\'A